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Madison, WI, United States

Reynolds M.R.,AIDS Vaccine Research Laboratory | Weiler A.M.,AIDS Vaccine Research Laboratory | Piaskowski S.M.,AIDS Vaccine Research Laboratory | Piatak Jr. M.,SAIC | And 11 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

It has been suggested that poor immunogenicity may explain the lack of vaccine efficacy in preventing or controlling HIV infection in the Step trial. To investigate this issue we vaccinated eight Indian rhesus macaques with a trivalent replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 5 vaccine expressing SIV Gag, Pol, and Nef using a regimen similar to that employed in the Step trial. We detected broad vaccine-induced CD8 + (2-7 pool-specific responses) and CD4 + (5-19 pool-specific responses) T-cell responses in IFN-γ ELISPOT assays at one week post-boost using fresh PBMC. However, using cryopreserved cells at one and four weeks post-boost we observed a reduction in both the number and magnitude of most vaccine-induced responses. This demonstrates that the time points and conditions chosen to perform immune assays may influence the observed breadth and frequency of vaccine-induced T-cell responses. To evaluate protective efficacy, we challenged the immunized macaques, along with naïve controls, with repeated, limiting doses of the heterologous swarm isolate SIVsmE660. Vaccination did not significantly affect acquisition or control of virus replication in vaccinees compared to naïve controls. Post-infection we observed an average of only two anamnestic CD8 + T-cell responses per animal, which may not have been sufficiently broad to control heterologous virus replication. While the trivalent vaccine regimen induced relatively broad T-cell responses in rhesus macaques, it failed to protect against infection or control viral replication. Our results are consistent with those observed in the Step trial and indicate that SIV immunization and challenge studies in macaque models of HIV infection can be informative in assessing pre-clinical HIV vaccines. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Reynolds M.R.,AIDS Vaccine Research Laboratory | Weiler A.M.,AIDS Vaccine Research Laboratory | Piaskowski S.M.,AIDS Vaccine Research Laboratory | Kolar H.L.,AIDS Vaccine Research Laboratory | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2010

An effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine will likely need to reduce mucosal transmission and, if infection occurs, control virus replication. To determine whether our best simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine can achieve these lofty goals, we vaccinated eight Indian rhesus macaques with SIVmac239Δnef and challenged them intrarectally (i.r.) with repeated low doses of the pathogenic heterologous swarm isolate SIVsmE660. We detected a significant reduction in acquisition of SIVsmE660 in comparison to that for naïve controls (log rank test; P = 0.023). After 10 mucosal challenges, we detected replication of the challenge strain in only five of the eight vaccinated animals. In contrast, seven of the eight control animals became infected with SIVsmE660 after these 10 challenges. Additionally, the SIVsmE660-infected vaccinated animals controlled peak acute virus replication significantly better than did the naïve controls (Mann-Whitney U test; P = 0.038). Four of the five SIVsmE660 vaccinees rapidly brought virus replication under control by week 4 postinfection. Unfortunately, two of these four vaccinated animals lost control of virus replication during the chronic phase of infection. Bulk sequence analysis of the circulating viruses in these animals indicated that recombination had occurred between the vaccine and challenge strains and likely contributed to the increased virus replication in these animals. Overall, our results suggest that a well-designed HIV vaccine might both reduce the rate of acquisition and control viral replication. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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