Entity

Time filter

Source Type


HIV-1 reverse transcription is achieved in the newly infected cell before viral DNA (vDNA) nuclear import. Reverse transcriptase (RT) has previously been shown to function as a molecular motor, dismantling the nucleocapsid complex that binds the viral genome as soon as plus-strand DNA synthesis initiates. We first propose a detailed model of this dismantling in close relationship with the sequential conversion from RNA to double-stranded (ds) DNA, focusing on the nucleocapsid protein (NCp7). The HIV-1 DNA-containing pre-integration complex (PIC) resulting from completion of reverse transcription is translocated through the nuclear pore. The PIC nucleoprotein architecture is poorly understood but contains at least two HIV-1 proteins initially from the virion core, namely integrase (IN) and the viral protein r (Vpr). We next present a set of electron micrographs supporting that Vpr behaves as a DNA architectural protein, initiating multiple DNA bridges over more than 500 base pairs (bp). These complexes are shown to interact with NCp7 bound to single-stranded nucleic acid regions that are thought to maintain IN binding during dsDNA synthesis, concurrently with nucleocapsid complex dismantling. This unexpected binding of Vpr conveniently leads to a compacted but filamentous folding of the vDNA that should favor its nuclear import. Finally, nucleocapsid-like aggregates engaged in dsDNA synthesis appear to efficiently bind to F-actin filaments, a property that may be involved in targeting complexes to the nuclear envelope. More generally, this article highlights unique possibilities offered by in vitro reconstitution approaches combined with macromolecular imaging to gain insights into the mechanisms that alter the nucleoprotein architecture of the HIV-1 genome, ultimately enabling its insertion into the nuclear chromatin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Gil C.,AIDS Research Group | Climent N.,AIDS Research Group | Garcia F.,AIDS Research Group | Garcia F.,Services of Infectious Diseases and AIDS Unit | And 22 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

This study provides a detailed description and characterization of the preparation of individualized lots of autologous heat inactivated HIV-1 virions used as immunogen in a clinical trial designed to test an autologous dendritic-cell-based therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine (Clinical Trial DCV-2, NCT00402142). For each participant, ex vivo isolation and expansion of primary virus were performed by co-culturing CD4-enriched PBMCs from the HIV-1-infected patient with PBMC from HIV-seronegative unrelated healthy volunteer donors. The viral supernatants were heat-inactivated and concentrated to obtain 1mL of autologous immunogen, which was used to load autologous dendritic cells of each patient. High sequence homology was found between the inactivated virus immunogen and the HIV-1 circulating in plasma at the time of HIV-1 isolation. Immunogens contained up to 10 9 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL showed considerably reduced infectivity after heat inactivation (median of 5.6log 10), and were free of specified adventitious agents. The production of individualized lots of immunogen based on autologous inactivated HIV-1 virus fulfilling clinical-grade good manufacturing practice proved to be feasible, consistent with predetermined specifications, and safe for use in a clinical trial designed to test autologous dendritic cell-based therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Mori M.,University of Siena | Kovalenko L.,University of Strasbourg | Kovalenko L.,Taras Shevchenko National University | Lyonnais S.,AIDS Research Group | And 7 more authors.
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2015

The currently available anti-HIV-1 therapeutics is highly beneficial to infected patients. However, clinical failures occur as a result of the ability of HIV-1 to rapidly mutate. One approach to overcome drug resistance is to target HIV-1 proteins that are highly conserved among phylogenetically distant viral strains and currently not targeted by available therapies. In this respect, the nucleocapsid (NC) protein, a zinc finger protein, is particularly attractive, as it is highly conserved and plays a central role in virus replication, mainly by interacting with nucleic acids. The compelling rationale for considering NC as a viable drug target is illustrated by the fact that point mutants of this protein lead to noninfectious viruses and by the inability to select viruses resistant to a first generation of anti-NC drugs. In our review, we discuss the most relevant properties and functions of NC, as well as recent developments of small molecules targeting NC. Zinc ejectors show strong antiviral activity, but are endowed with a low therapeutic index due to their lack of specificity, which has resulted in toxicity. Currently, they are mainly being investigated for use as topical microbicides. Greater specificity may be achieved by using non-covalent NC inhibitors (NCIs) targeting the hydrophobic platform at the top of the zinc fingers or key nucleic acid partners of NC. Within the last few years, innovative methodologies have been developed to identify NCIs. Though the antiviral activity of the identified NCIs needs still to be improved, these compounds strongly support the druggability of NC and pave the way for future structure-based design and optimization of efficient NCIs. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Source


Herrera E.,Unit of Synthesis and Biomedical Applications of Peptides IQAC CSIC | Tenckhoff S.,University of Leipzig | Gomara M.J.,Unit of Synthesis and Biomedical Applications of Peptides IQAC CSIC | Galatola R.,Unit of Synthesis and Biomedical Applications of Peptides IQAC CSIC | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

The use of synthetic peptides as HIV-1 inhibitors has been subject to research over recent years. Although the initial therapeutic attempts focused on HIV-coded enzymes, structural HIV proteins and, more specifically, the mechanisms that the virus uses to infect and replicate are now also considered therapeutic targets. The interest for viral fusion and entry inhibitors is growing significantly, given that they are applicable in combined therapies or when resistance to other antiretroviral drugs is seen and that they act before the virus enters the cell. The 124 synthetic sequences of the GBV-C E2 envelope protein have been obtained by SPPS. The interaction of certain GBV-C peptide sequences with the HIV-1 fusion peptide has been proven through the use of biophysical techniques. We also show how GBV-C E2 domains notably decrease cellular membrane fusion and interfere with the HIV-1 infectivity in a dose-dependent manner, highlighting their potential utility in future anti-HIV-1 therapies. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


Lyonnais S.,AIDS Research Group | Gorelick R.J.,Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research | Heniche-Boukhalfa F.,University Paris - Sud | Bouaziz S.,University of Paris Descartes | And 7 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2012

HIV-1 reverse transcription is achieved in the newly infected cell before viral DNA (vDNA) nuclear import. Reverse transcriptase (RT) has previously been shown to function as a molecular motor, dismantling the nucleocapsid complex that binds the viral genome as soon as plus-strand DNA synthesis initiates. We first propose a detailed model of this dismantling in close relationship with the sequential conversion from RNA to double-stranded (ds) DNA, focusing on the nucleocapsid protein (NCp7). The HIV-1 DNA-containing pre-integration complex (PIC) resulting from completion of reverse transcription is translocated through the nuclear pore. The PIC nucleoprotein architecture is poorly understood but contains at least two HIV-1 proteins initially from the virion core, namely integrase (IN) and the viral protein r (Vpr). We next present a set of electron micrographs supporting that Vpr behaves as a DNA architectural protein, initiating multiple DNA bridges over more than 500 base pairs (bp). These complexes are shown to interact with NCp7 bound to single-stranded nucleic acid regions that are thought to maintain IN binding during dsDNA synthesis, concurrently with nucleocapsid complex dismantling. This unexpected binding of Vpr conveniently leads to a compacted but filamentous folding of the vDNA that should favor its nuclear import. Finally, nucleocapsid-like aggregates engaged in dsDNA synthesis appear to efficiently bind to F-actin filaments, a property that may be involved in targeting complexes to the nuclear envelope. More generally, this article highlights unique possibilities offered by in vitro reconstitution approaches combined with macromolecular imaging to gain insights into the mechanisms that alter the nucleoprotein architecture of the HIV-1 genome, ultimately enabling its insertion into the nuclear chromatin. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Discover hidden collaborations