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Thompson D.R.,Center for Womens and Childrens Health Research | Momplaisir F.M.,Drexel University | Adams J.W.,AIDS Activities and Coordinating Office | Yehia B.R.,University of Pennsylvania | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Objective Current guidelines call for HIV-infected women to deliver via scheduled Caesarean when the maternal HIV viral load (VL) is >1,000 copies/ml.We describe the mode of delivery among HIV-infected women and evaluate adherence to relevant recommendations. Study Design We performed a population-based surveillance analysis of HIV-infected pregnant women in Philadelphia from 2005 to 2013, comparing mode of delivery (vaginal, scheduled Caesarean, or emergent Caesarean) by VL during pregnancy, closest to the time of delivery (1,000 copies/ml versus an unknown VL or VL >1,000 copies/ml) and associated factors in multivariable analysis. Results Our cohort included 824 deliveries from 648 HIV-infected women, of whom 69.4%had a VL-1,000 copies/ml and 30.6% lacked a VL or had a VL >1,000 copies/ml during pregnancy, closest to the time of delivery. Mode of delivery varied by VL: 56.6%of births were vaginal, 30.1% scheduled Caesarean, and 13.3% emergent Caesarean when the VL was-1,000 copies/ml; when the VL was unknown or >1,000 copies/ml, 32.9% of births were vaginal, 49.9% scheduled Caesarean and 17.5%emergent Caesarean. In multivariable analyses, Hispanic women (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.17, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.04-0.76) and non-Hispanic black women (AOR 0.27, 95% CI 0.10-0.77) were less to likely to deliver via scheduled Caesarean compared to non-Hispanic white women. Women who delivered prior to 38 weeks' gestation (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.18-0.76) were also less likely to deliver via scheduled Caesarean compared to women who delivered after 38 weeks' gestation. An interaction term for race and gestational age at delivery was significant in multivariable analysis. Non-Hispanic black (AOR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01-0.36) and Hispanic women (AOR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00-0.59) were more likely to deliver prematurely and less likely to deliver via scheduled C-section compared to non-Hispanic white women. Having a previous Caesarean (AOR 27.77, 95% CI 8.94-86.18) increased the odds of scheduled Caesarean delivery. Conclusions Only half of deliveries for women with an unknown VL or VL >1,000 copies/ml occurred via scheduled Caesarean. Delivery prior to 38 weeks, particularly among minority women, resulted in a missed opportunity to receive a scheduled Caesarean. However, even when delivering at or after 38 weeks' gestation, a significant proportion of women did not get a scheduled Caesarean when indicated, suggesting a need for focused public health interventions to increase the proportion of women achieving viral suppression during pregnancy and delivering via scheduled Caesarean when indicated. © 2015 Thompson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in anymedium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Momplaisir F.M.,Drexel University | Brady K.A.,AIDS Activities and Coordinating Office | Brady K.A.,University of Pennsylvania | Fekete T.,Temple University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: HIV suppression at parturition is beneficial for maternal, fetal and public health. To eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV, an understanding of missed opportunities for antiretroviral therapy (ART) use during pregnancy and HIV suppression at delivery is required. Methodology: We performed a retrospective analysis of 836 mother-to-child pairs involving 656 HIV-infected women in Philadelphia, 2005-2013. Multivariable regression examined associations between patient (age, race/ethnicity, insurance status, drug use) and clinical factors such as adequacy of prenatal care measured by the Kessner index which classifies prenatal care as inadequate, intermediate, or adequate prenatal care; timing of HIV diagnosis; and the outcomes: receipt of ART during pregnancy and viral suppression at delivery. Results: Overall, 25% of the sample was diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy; 39%, 38%, and 23% were adequately, intermediately, and inadequately engaged in prenatal care. Eight-five percent of mother-to-child pairs received ART during pregnancy but only 52% achieved suppression at delivery. Adjusting for patient factors, pairs diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy were less likely to receive ART (AOR 0.39, 95% CI 0.25-0.61) and achieve viral suppression (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49-1.00) than those diagnosed before pregnancy. Similarly, women with inadequate prenatal care were less likely to receive ART (AOR 0.06, 95% CI 0.03-0.11) and achieve viral suppression (AOR 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.47) than those with adequate prenatal care. Conclusions: Targeted interventions to diagnose HIV prior to pregnancy and engage HIV-infected women in prenatal care have the potential to improve HIV related outcomes in the perinatal period. © 2015, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. Source

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