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Nakamura, Japan

Aichi University is a private university in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Its campuses are located in Nakamura-ku, Nagoya, Toyohashi and Higashi-ku, Nagoya. Wikipedia.

Objective: " iEat®" (EN Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.; study diet), a food product that resembles an ordinary meal in appearance but is cooked to soften, was compared with foods provided to patients with impaired mastication (modified traditional diet) to investigate the influence of the appearance of foods on the consumption rate, dietary nutrition intake, and satisfaction level. Methods: After serving the study participants the modified traditional diet on days 1 and 2, the study diet on days 3, 4, and 5, and the modified traditional diet on days 6 and 7, the consumption rates were measured by weight difference. The amounts of dietary nutrition intake were calculated from the consumption rates. Satisfaction levels were evaluated by a questionnaire completed by the participants and their health care professionals after each meal. Results: No significant difference in consumption rates was observed between the study diet and the modified traditional diet. The amounts of dietary nutrition intake of energy and protein were significantly higher for the study diet than for the modified traditional diet. The study diet showed higher satisfaction levels in terms of " appearance" when evaluated by the participants, and " joy of eating" and " overall satisfaction level" when evaluated by the health care professionals. Conclusion: The study diet has potential to become a new dietary option for patients with impaired mastication. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Miyoshi M.,Aichi University
Ocean Development and International Law | Year: 2012

China's recent claims to a large "U-shaped" area in the South China Sea, involving the disputed Spratly and Paracel Islands, has given rise to a number of serious criticisms not only from neighboring states, but also some states beyond the region. The claim also raises a number of theoretical questions, including whether historic title claims without hard evidence have validity under international law. This article explores this and other issues raised by China's U-shaped claim. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Objective: Apocrine carcinoma, a subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, expresses androgen receptor (AR), but often lacks estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR). In the present study, the author immunohistochemically defined apocrine-type carcinoma as ER-/PgR-/AR+ invasive ductal carcinoma and analyzed the significance of apocrine-type carcinoma as triple-negative breast cancer. Methods: Four hundred and forty breast cancers from 429 cases were immunostained for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), p53, Ki-67 and epidermal growth factor receptor. The lesions included 58 in situ malignancies (including 13 apocrine-type lesions) and 325 invasive ductal carcinomas (including 44 apocrine type). Results: Of 91 estrogen receptor-negative invasive ductal carcinomas, 44 (48%) belonged to apocrine-type carcinoma, and overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 and p53 was observed in 23 (52%) and 33 (75%), respectively. Histologically, 22 (50%) were categorized as classical apocrine carcinoma. Among 281 non-apocrine invasive ductal carcinomas, 30 (11%) were quadruple-negative (ER-/PgR-/AR-/HER2-) and 17 (6%) were hormone receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-overexpressed. Invasive ductal carcinomas in the triple-negative breast cancer category (n = 51) were divided into triple-negative, androgen receptor-positive (apocrine, n = 21) and quadruple-negative (non-apocrine, n = 30). p53 overexpression was more often seen in the apocrine-type triple-negative breast cancer (18/21 = 86%) than in the non-apocrine type (14/30= 46%) (P< 0.05). Ki-67 labeling was significantly higher in the non-apocrine type (58%) than in the apocrine type (37%) (P< 0.01). Epidermal growth factor receptor is consistently expressed in triple-negative breast cancers (16/16= 100% in apocrine and 18/20= 90% in non-apocrine). Conclusions: Androgen receptor should be added to immunohistochemical panels, since apocrine-type invasive ductal carcinoma, resembling basal-like phenotypes, may show clinical behaviors different from the basal-like triple-negative breast cancer. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Hirota T.,Vanderbilt University | Kishi T.,Aichi University
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Objective: Although antipsychotics have been used empirically to prevent the development of postoperative delirium, there has been no confirming evidence to support their use. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis to elucidate their efficacy and tolerability in surgical patients. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library databases, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched up to February 2013 without language restrictions, using the following keywords: (antipsychotics OR [nonproprietary name of each antipsychotic medication, separated by OR]) AND delirium AND (randomized OR random OR randomly). Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials comparing prophylactic use of antipsychotics with placebo in surgical patients were included. Data Extraction: Two authors extracted and scrutinized the data. The risk ratio (RR), 95% confidence interval (CI), number needed to treat (NNT), and standardized mean difference were used. Results: Six studies (3 haloperidol, 1 olanzapine, and 2 risperidone) including 1,689 surgical patients were identified. The results showed significant efficacy in reducing the occurrence of delirium (RR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.34 to 0.73, P = .0003; NNT = 7, P = .001, 6 studies). Sensitivity analysis showed that second-generation antipsychotics were superior to placebo (RR = 0.36, P < .00001; NNT = 4, P < .00001), whereas haloperidol failed to show superiority to placebo. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in severity of delirium, discontinuation rate, or rates of several adverse events. Conclusions: Our results suggest that secondgeneration antipsychotics are more beneficial than placebo for preventing the incidence of delirium.Among patients who do develop delirium, the severity of delirium is not reduced in those who received prophylactic antipsychotics. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc. Source

Objective: Adenosine has been reported to interact with dopamine and glutamate of which are currently central pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Further, there have been emerging reports that patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have pathophysiological changes of the purinergic system. Thus, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of adenosine modulators in these disorders. Method: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library databases, CINAHL, and PsycINFO up to April 25, 2013. Randomized controlled trials comparing adenosine modulator adjuvant therapy with placebo in patients with schizophrenia and BD were included. Primary outcome measures were Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Young Mania Rating Scales (YMRS). The risk ratio, 95% confidence interval, and standardized mean differences (SMD) were used. Results: Nine studies, including six studies in schizophrenia (total n. = 457) and three studies in BD (total n. = 289) were included. Overall, adenosine modulators were superior to placebo in PANSS total scores (SMD. = -. 1.07, p. = 0.01) and positive and general but not negative symptom subscale scores in schizophrenia. Individually, allopurinol failed to show its superiority to placebo in all primary outcome measures in schizophrenia. In BD, data from pooled adenosine modulators indicated significant reduction of YMRS scores in comparison to placebo (SMD. = -. 0.39, p. = 0.004). Conclusions: Our results suggest that adenosine modulator adjuvant therapy is more beneficial in overall psychopathology (especially positive symptoms) in schizophrenia and in treating mania episodes of BD in comparison to placebo. The limited sample size of available studies suggests that more research should be done to evaluate both efficacy and tolerability of these medications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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