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Ida T.,Nagoya Institute of Technology | Ida T.,Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center
Powder Diffraction | Year: 2016

A method to obtain both one-dimensional powder diffraction intensities I(2θ) and statistical uncertainties σ(2θ) from the data collected with a flat two-dimensional X-ray detector is proposed. The method has been applied to analysis of the diffraction data of fine quartz powder recorded with synchrotron X-ray. The profile and magnitude of the estimated uncertainties σ(2θ) have shown that the effects of propagation of the errors in 2θ are dominant as the uncertainties about the observed intensity values I(2θ). The powder diffraction intensity data I(2θ), including nine reflection peaks have been analyzed by the Rietveld method incorporating the experimentally estimated uncertainties σ(2θ). The observed I(2θ) data have been reproduced with a symmetric peak profile function (R wp = 0.84 %), and no significant peak shifts from calculated locations have been detected as compared with the experimental errors. The optimized values of the lattice constants of the quartz sample have nominally been estimated at a = 4.9131(4) Å and c = 5.4043(2) Å, where the uncertainties in parentheses are evaluated by the Rietveld optimization based on the estimated uncertainties σ(2θ) for intensities I(2θ). It is likely that reliability of error estimation about unit-cell dimensions has been improved by this analytical method. Copyright © International Centre for Diffraction Data 2016 Source


Takeda Y.,Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2016

Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center was designed for industrial use following five years of discussion among academia, industry and local government in the Aichi area. Among the six beam lines constructed, those that facilitated X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis were given first priority. In addition to the hardware, attention was given to the development of operating procedures that were quick and user-friendly. The facility entered public service in March 2013. In the year 2013, 55% of the experiments involved XAFS analysis (hard X-ray, soft X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet regions) and in 2014 it was 57%. The range of research fields is very broad, emphasizing the importance of the XAFS beam lines. Source


Komori K.,Nagoya University | Yoshida T.,EcoTopia Science Institute | Nomoto T.,Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center | Yamamoto M.,Nagoya University | And 5 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2015

We investigated the photocatalysis of dendritic nanostructured WO3/W composite materials fabricated by He plasma irradiation to tungsten plates, followed by the surface oxidation. The samples promoted the decolorization reaction of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution under near infrared (NIR) light irradiation. To verify the MB molecule is actually decomposed by the photocatalysis of the samples, reaction products were analyzed by S K-edge XANES measurements for the MB solution kept with the samples under the light irradiation or in the dark. By the light irradiation, the σ∗(S-C) peak in the XANES spectra reduced and a new peak originated from SO4 2- species was clearly observed, suggesting that S-C bonds in a MB molecule are broken by the NIR light irradiation and finally the sulfur species exists in the solution in the state of SO4 2- ion. After the adsorption reaction in the dark, the XANES spectra of the sample surfaces showed a sharp π∗(S-C) peaks, indicating that MB molecules are adsorbed on the sample surfaces and stacked each other by the π-π interaction. These results demonstrate that the photocatalytic decomposition of MB molecules really proceeds over WO3/W composite materials even under NIR light irradiation. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Yamamoto M.,Nagoya University | Yoshida T.,EcoTopia Science Institute | Yamamoto N.,Nagoya University | Nomoto T.,Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center | Yagi S.,EcoTopia Science Institute
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2015

Ag loaded Ga2O3 (Ag/Ga2O3) photocatalysts for the reduction of CO2 with water have been prepared by impregnation (IMP) and two types of solution plasma methods (SPM1 and SPM2). Using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies, we have investigated the local electronic structures of Ag/Ga2O3 photocatalysts as well as the adsorption behaviors of CO2 during the reaction. Both Ag L3-edge and O K-edge XANES analyses reveal the Ag-Ga2O3 interaction, i.e., the charge-transfer from O atoms to Ag atoms, by demonstrating the decrease in the unoccupied Ag 4d-state density and increase in the unoccupied O 2p-state density. The strength of the interaction depends on the preparation method, and increases in the order of Ag/Ga2O3 (SPM2), Ag/Ga2O3 (SPM1) and Ag/Ga2O3 (IMP). In addition, FT-IR measurements have disclosed that Ag/Ga2O3 (IMP) obtains a larger amount of strongly basic sites as a result of the strongest interaction between Ag and Ga2O3. Although the amount of the adsorbed CO2 is different in each Ag/Ga2O3 sample, in the following formation process of bidentate formate species, no remarkable difference is detected among all samples. The bidentate formate species are likely to interact with H2O molecules to produce CO under photoirradiation, and this process would be affected by the strength of the Ag-Ga2O3 interaction, because this reaction hardly proceeds over Ag/Ga2O3 (SPM2) having the weakest Ag-Ga2O3 interaction. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Horita D.,Josai University | Horita D.,Ikeda Mohando Co. | Hatta I.,Nagoya Industrial Science Research Institute | Hatta I.,Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center | And 4 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes | Year: 2015

Ethanol (EtOH) is one of the bases in topically applied medicines that promote the skin permeation of drugs. Although the effects of EtOH have been attributed to structural modifications in the stratum corneum, the underlying mechanisms, especially the influence of different concentrations of EtOH, have not been examined extensively. Structural modifications in the stratum corneum of hairless mouse due to the application of EtOH/water mixture were herein investigated at the molecular level using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that all EtOH concentrations examined greatly modified the short lamellar structures containing the aqueous layer in intercellular lipids and the structure of keratin fibrils in corneocytes, which can take up hydrophilic compounds. However, the long lamellar and the hydrocarbon-chain packing structures were unaffected by EtOH. Changes to the short lamellar structures were not proportional to the concentration of EtOH. However, the keratin fibril structures changed gradually with increasing EtOH concentration. The X-ray diffraction experiments enabled the effects of different EtOH concentrations on the morphology of the stratum corneum to be assessed by using a number of experimental samples to avoid variations due to individual differences. The results indicated that alterations to the short lamellar structures appeared to be related to the skin permeability of drugs with the application of EtOH/water mixture, and monotonous structural changes in the keratin fibrils with an increase in EtOH concentration may contribute to this permeation as supplement. These results will be useful for the development of new drug formulations containing EtOH. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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