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Goto T.,Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health
Yakugaku Zasshi | Year: 2010

One of the major roles of public health agencies is to ensure safe products for consumers through analysis of residual agricultural chemicals and veterinary drugs in foods. The use of agricultural chemicals and veterinary drugs in agriculture is necessary to improve the quality of the food produced. They play a beneficial role in providing a plentiful, low-cost supply of high-quality food. On the other hand, as a consequence of this use, the presence of residues in food that is a critical element of overall public health is unavoidable, and residues in food are of great importance in the evaluation of food quality. N-methyl carbamate pesticides have anticholinesterase activity and are used worldwide. The postcolumn HPLC method is widely used for the detection of N-methyl carbamate pesticides in food. However, this traditional method involves a time-consuming process that requires skillful techniques. Therefore we developed a new analysis method for N-methyl carbamate pesticides as described in detail in this paper. The new method, including sample preparation and determination, is simple and rapid and allows simultaneous determination of pesticides in food within a much shorter analysis time as compared with the traditional method. This should provide high-quality analysis and ensure safe products for consumers. © 2010 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.

Ueno E.,Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health
Journal of Pesticide Science | Year: 2015

In Japan, the Positive List System for the regulation of agricultural chemical residues in foods has been in force since May 29, 2006. Moreover, food poisoning caused by methamidophos-laced frozen gyoza dumplings came to light on Jan. 30, 2008. The news has set off alarms about the safety of not only perishables but also unexpected pesticides in processed foods. Therefore, a reliable systematic method was developed for determining pesticide residues in various foods. Firstly, ca. 200 target pesticides were selected by statistically analyzing the monitoring data in Aichi Prefecture. Secondly, a systematic method using plural separation and detection systems combining GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS as first priority was constructed. As the sample preparation method corresponding to the systematic method, a simple and easy acetonitrile extraction method, an auto-cleanup system combining GPC and mini-column SPE were developed. Thirdly, a new official multi-residue method that is able to determine a wide range of pesticides in various foods including fatty processed foods was developed. And finally, a comprehensive chromatographic detection system by dual-column GC-MS(/MS) and an interactive database without the use of pesticide standards was commercialized. © Pesticide Science Society of Japan.

Sueta A.,Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute | Sueta A.,Kumamoto University | Ito H.,Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute | Kawase T.,Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified genetic variants associated with breast cancer. Most GWASs to date have been conducted in women of European descent, however, and the contribution of these variants as predictors in Japanese women is unknown. Here, we analyzed 23 genetic variants identified in previous GWASs and conducted a case-control study with 697 case subjects and 1,394 age- and menopausal status-matched controls. We fit conditional regression models with genetic variants and conventional risk factors. In addition, we created a polygenetic risk score, using those variants with a statistically significant association with breast cancer risk, and also evaluated the contribution of these genetic predictors using the c statistic. Eleven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed significant associations with breast cancer risk. A dose-dependent association was observed between the risk of breast cancer and the genetic risk score, which was an aggregate measure of alleles in seven selected variants, namely FGFR2-rs2981579, TOX3/TNRC9-rs3803662, C6orf97-rs2046210, 8q24-rs13281615, SLC4A7-rs4973768, LSP1-rs38137198, and CASP8-rs10931936. Compared to women with scores of 3 or less, odds ratios (ORs) for women with scores of 4-5, 6-7, 8-9, and 10 or more were 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.80), 1.71 (1.26-2.30), 3.01 (1.97-4.58), and 8.69 (2.75-27.5), respectively (P trend = 1.9 × 10 -9). The c statistic for a model including the genetic risk score in addition to the conventional risk factors was 0.6933, versus 0.6652 with the conventional risk factors only (P = 1.3 × 10 -4). Population-attributable fraction of the risk score was 33.0%. In conclusion, we identified a genetic risk predictor of breast cancer in a Japanese population. Risk models which include a genetic risk score are possibly useful in distinguishing women at high risk of breast cancer from those at low risk, particularly in the context of targeted prevention. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Nagao M.,Kyoto University | Iinuma Y.,Kyoto University | Suzuki M.,Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Matsushima A.,Kyoto University | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2010

This report describes the first outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 in a general hospital ward in Japan, involving 6 health care workers and 4 patients. This report emphasizes the need for health care personnel to be alert that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus harboring Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene poses a threat for both nosocomial and occupational infection. Copyright © 2010 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc., and the Society for Healthcare. Epidemiology of America.

Suzuki M.,Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Suzuki M.,Nagoya University | Hosoba E.,Clinical Research Center | Matsui M.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Arakawa Y.,Nagoya University
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2014

Antimicrobial resistance issues have become a global health concern. The rapid identification of multidrug-resistant microbes, which depends on microbial genomic information, is essential for overcoming growing antimicrobial resistance challenges. However, genotyping methods, such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST), for identifying international epidemic clones of Acinetobacter baumannii are not easily performed as routine tests in ordinary clinical laboratories. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel genotyping method that can be performed in ordinary microbiology laboratories. Several open reading frames (ORFs) specific to certain bacterial genetic lineages or species, together with their unique distribution patterns on the chromosomes showing a good correlation with the results of MLST, were selected in A. baumannii and other Acinetobacter spp. by comparing their genomic data. The distribution patterns of the ORFs were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis after multiplex PCR amplification and digitized. A. baumannii sequence types (STs) corresponding to international clones I and II were successfully discriminated from other STs and Acinetobacter species by detecting the distribution patterns of their ORFs using the multiplex PCR developed here. Since bacterial STs can be easily expressed as digitized numeric data with plus (+) expressed as 1 and minus (-) expressed as 0, the results of the method can be easily compared with those obtained by different tests or laboratories. This PCR-based ORF typing (POT) method can easily and rapidly identify international epidemic clones of A. baumannii and differentiate this microbe from other Acinetobacter spp. Since this POT method is easy enough to be performed even in ordinary clinical laboratories, it would also contribute to daily infection control measures and surveillance. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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