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Uyeno Y.,Shinshu University | Uyeno Y.,National Federation of Dairy Co operative Associations | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Hasunuma T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Livestock Science

The effects of oral administration of a prebiotic (cellooligosaccharide [CE]) and a combination of a probiotic (a commercial Clostridium butyricum strain) and prebiotics (referred to as symbiotics [SB]) on performance and intestinal ecology in Holstein calves fed milk replacer (MR) or whole milk were evaluated. Forty female calves (experiment 1) and 14 male and female calves (experiment 2) were used in this study. Calves were fed MR (experiment 1) or whole milk (experiment 2) necessary for daily weight gain of 0.3kg based on birth weight in two daily feedings and weaned at 46 days. Calves were divided into a CE feeding group, SB feeding group (only in experiment 1), and control group. The CE and SB groups were fed CE at 5g/day before weaning and 10g/day postweaning. Only the SB group received 108 colony-forming units (CFU) of C. butyricum culture per day. Commercial calf starter was offered for ad libitum intake. Health and feed intake of the animals were monitored daily, and body weight was measured weekly. Fecal samples were analyzed for determination of bacterial community composition by an RNA-based method (sequence-specific SSU rRNA cleavage method) and for organic acid profiling. In 49-day experiments, feed intake, daily gain, and occurrence of diarrhea of the calves were unaffected by either CE supplementation or SB supplementation, and all calves were healthy during each experiment. The fecal bacterial community compositions and the organic acid profiles were not different among groups in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the level of the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group was higher in the feces of CE group than controls at 4 weeks of age and fecal butyric acid concentration was higher (8.0 vs. 12.2 [mmol/kg feces], P<0.05) at that time. There were no differences in prebiotic bacteria (the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) between groups at this time point. These results suggested that CE and C. butyricum supplementation have less effect on the performance of healthy calves fed MR. However, prebiotic supplementation seems effective for modulation of the intestinal bacterial community of calves when administered with whole milk. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hasunuma T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | Hasunuma T.,University of Tsukuba | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Nakayama H.,Aichi Prefectural Agricultural Research Center | And 11 more authors.
Animal Science Journal

We investigated the effect of cellooligosaccharide (CE) or a combination of dextran and Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei strain JCM1134 T (synbiotic; SB) feeding on growth performance, fecal condition and hormone concentrations in Holstein calves. Fifty-two female Holstein calves were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: CE feeding group (n=16), SB feeding group (n=18), and control group (n=18). Body weight at 90days of age, as well as daily body weight gain (DG) and feed efficiency after weaning to 90days of age were greater (P<0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group. The total fecal score tended to be lower (P<0.1) in the SB feeding group than in the control group. Plasma insulin concentration was higher (P<0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group at 90days of age. Our results indicate that CE feeding improved DG and feed efficiency in calves. On the other hand, there was less effect on growth performance and fecal Escherichia coli counts in calves fed SB. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source

Fujii K.,Aichi Prefectural Agricultural Research Center | Tsuji T.,Aichi Prefectural Agricultural Research Center | Yoshida T.,Aichi Prefectural Agricultural Research Center | Maruyama-Funatsuki W.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Ikeda T.M.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center
Breeding Science

Glu-B3 alleles on chromosome 1BS of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) encoding low-molecularweight glutenin subunit are associated with dough property. Among them, Glu-B3g is known to increase dough strength. To incorporate efficiently Glu-B3g allele into breeders' lines, DNA marker-assisted selection (DNA-MAS) is considered to be a powerful tool. In the present study, we examined the applicability of 'glume color' (GC) controlled by Rg-B1 (Rg1) locus on 1BS as a 'field-marker' to detect Glu-B3 alleles. Three populations of F4 breeding lines were used. In each cross, both genotypes of Glu-B3 and Rg-B1 loci of each parent were different. Glu-B3 allele-specific DNA markers were applied to determine the genotype of Glu-B3 locus of each line. The genotype of Rg-B1 locus of each line was visually determined by GC. Significantly tight cosegregations between Glu-B3 and Rg-B1 loci were found in all the populations of breeding lines. It is considered that GC controlled by Rg-B1 locus is a useful 'field-marker' to detect Glu-B3 alleles, as it is less time-consuming and more cost effective than DNA-MAS. By using the 'field-marker', breeders can select elite lines carrying Glu-B3g allele in breeding fields only by observing the GC of each line/plant without laboratorial procedures for DNA-MAS. Source

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