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Nagoya, Japan

Aichi Medical University is a private university at Nagakute, Aichi, Japan, founded in 1971. Wikipedia.

Watanabe D.,Aichi Medical University
Journal of Dermatological Science | Year: 2010

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) are important human pathogens that cause a variety of diseases from mild skin diseases such as herpes labialis and herpes genitalis to life-threatening diseases such as herpes encephalitis and neonatal herpes. A number of studies have elucidated the roles of this virus in viral replication and pathogenicity, the regulation of gene expression, interaction with the host cell and immune evasion from the host system. This research has allowed the development of potential therapeutic agents and vectors for human diseases. This review focuses on the basic functions and roles of HSV gene products and reviews the current knowledge of medical applications of genetically engineered HSV mutants using different strategies. These major HSV-derived vectors include: (i) amplicons for gene delivery vectors; (ii) replication-defective HSV recombinants for vaccine vectors; (iii) replication-attenuated HSV recombinants for oncolytic virotherapy. © 2009 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Source

Yamamoto T.,Aichi Medical University
Transplantation | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether all donor-specific antibodies (DSA) can cause chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Subclinical stage before manifestation of renal dysfunction may be a critical period for reversing AMR. The aim of our study was to identify factors related to the development of subclinical AMR and to clarify the characteristics of de novo DSA. METHODS: Eight hundred ninety-nine renal transplants were screened for HLA antibody. De novo DSA were detected in 95 patients. Forty-three patients without renal dysfunction who underwent renal biopsies were enrolled in this study. Eighteen patients (41.9%) were diagnosed with biopsy-proven subclinical AMR and treated with plasmapheresis and rituximab-based therapy, whereas 25 showed no findings of AMR. RESULTS: Significant subclinical AMR-related factors were younger recipients, history of acute T cell–mediated rejection and DSA class II, especially DR-associated DSA. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values of DR-DSA were significantly higher, whereas DQ-DSA was not different between subclinical AMR and no AMR. The ΔMFI (>50%), DSA-MFI values greater than 3000, and C1q binding DSA were also significant subclinical AMR-related factors (P < 0.05). Among 18 patients treated for subclinical AMR, 8 patients (44.4%) obtained over 50% reduction of DSA-MFI and/or improvement or no deterioration of pathological findings. In contrast, 25 patients without subclinical AMR did not show renal dysfunction clinically. Moreover, all of the 8 patients with rebiopsy after 2 years continued to demonstrate no AMR. CONCLUSIONS: About 40% of patients with de novo DSA demonstrated biopsy-proven subclinical AMR, leading to progressive graft injury. To validate the intervention and treatment for de novo DSA-positive patients without renal dysfunction, further study is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Jung S.-K.,Catholic University of Korea | Kakizaki H.,Aichi Medical University | Jee D.,Catholic University of Korea
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2012

Purpose. To examine prevalence of refractive errors and its associated factors, such as body stature and educational level, among 19-year-old males in Seoul, Korea. Methods. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed in male subjects (n = 23,616; age = 19 years) who were normally resident in Seoul for male compulsory conscripts during the study period (2010). Refractive examination was performed with cycloplegia. Height, weight, and educational level were examined. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent less than -0.5 diopters (D) and high myopia less than -6.0 D. The association of myopia with body stature and educational level was analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Results. The prevalence of myopia in 19-year-old males in Seoul was 96.5%. The prevalence of high myopia was 21.61%. Body stature was not significantly associated with myopia. Four- to 6-year university students (odds ratio [OR] 1.69; P < 0.001) and 2 to 3-year college students (OR 1.68; P < 0.001) showed significantly higher risk for myopia than those with lower academic achievement (< high school graduation). Conclusions. The 19-year-old male population in Seoul, Korea, demonstrated a very high myopic prevalence. Myopic refractive error was associated with academic achievement, not with body stature. © 2012 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc. Source

Yokochi T.,Aichi Medical University
Innate Immunity | Year: 2012

We have recently established a new experimental murine model for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated lethal shock with lung-specific injury. Severe lung injury is induced by administration of LPS into α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer)-sensitized mice; the mice died with acute lung injury and respiratory distress within 24 h. α-GalCer activates natural killer T (NKT) cells in the lungs and liver, and induces the production of interferon (IFN)-γ. However, IFN-γ signaling is only triggered in the lungs and makes them susceptible to LPS. On the other hand, IFN-γ signaling is inhibited in liver and results in few hepatic lesions. Unlike liver NKT cells, lung NKT cells fail to produce interleukin (IL)-4, which down-regulates the IFN-γ signaling, in response to α-GalCer. The differential cytokine profile between lung and liver NKT cells may lead to organ-specific lung lesions. The experimental system using α-GalCer sensitization could be a useful experimental model for clinical endotoxic or septic shock as it presents respiratory failure, a typical manifestation in severe septic patients. In this review, key evidence and the introducuction of the detailed mechanism of LPS-mediated lung-specific injury in α-GalCer-sensitized mice is provided. In particular, the molecular background of organ-specific development of lung injury in the model is focused on. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

Sato M.,Aichi Medical University
Circulation Journal | Year: 2013

Signal processing via heterotrimeric G-proteins is one of the most widely used systems for signal transfer across the cell membrane. This signaling system regulates most physiological and pathophysiological processes in mammals and is therefore the primary target of many pharmaceutical agents. The heterotrimeric G-protein signaling system includes the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), heterotrimeric G-proteins, and effectors. The G-proteins are activated by the GPCR to mediate a signal to effector molecules. However, other players in this system that regulate the activation status of heterotrimeric G-proteins independently of GPCR have been identified. Such accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-protein can provide additional signal input to the G-protein signaling system, or may act as alternative binding partners of G-protein subunits serving as yet unknown roles in cells. It has been reported that this class of proteins is expressed in the cardiovascular system and contributes to signal integration involved in the various diseases. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-proteins in their 4 functional subsets, including guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), and Gβγ-interacting proteins, and discusses their roles in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Better understanding of these components may contribute new insight into the complex network of molecules governing GPCR signaling in the cardiovascular system. Source

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