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Okochi-Takada E.,National Cancer Center Research Institute | Hattori N.,National Cancer Center Research Institute | Tsukamoto T.,Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute | Miyamoto K.,National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center | And 8 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2014

Tumor suppressors with extracellular function are likely to have advantages as targets for cancer therapy, but few are known. Here, we focused on angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), which is a secreted glycoprotein involved in lipoprotein metabolism and angiogenesis, is methylation-silenced in human cancers, but has unclear roles in cancer development and progression. We found a deletion mutation in its coiled-coil domain at its N-terminal in human gastric cancers, in addition to hypermethylation of the ANGPTL4 promoter CpG islands. Forced expression of wild-type ANGPTL4, but not ANGPTL4 with the deletion, at physiological levels markedly suppressed in vivo tumorigenicity and tumor angiogenesis, indicating that the latter caused the former. Tumor-derived ANGPTL4 suppressed in vitro vascular tube formation and proliferation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells, partly due to suppression of ERK signaling. These showed that ANGPTL4 is a genetically and epigenetically inactivated secreted tumor suppressor that inhibits tumor angiogenesis. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Hamamoto Y.,Keio University | Yamaguchi T.,Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Disease Center | Nishina T.,National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center | Yamazaki K.,Shizuoka Cancer Center | And 8 more authors.
Oncologist | Year: 2014

Background. Capecitabine is used mainly with oxaliplatin to treat metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Results from capecitabine plus irinotecan (XELIRI) with or without bevacizumab (BV) have been reported in Europe but not in Japan. Consequently, the safety and efficacy of XELIRI plus BV in Japanese patients with mCRC were assessed in a single-arm phase II study.Methods. Eligible patients had had prior chemotherapy containing BV for mCRC and wild-type or heterozygous UGT1A1. Therapy in each 21-day treatment cycle consisted of capecitabine (800 mg/m2 twice daily on days 1-15), irinotecan (200 mg/m2 on day 1), and BV (7.5 mg/kg on day 1). The primary endpoint was dose-limiting toxicity in phase I and progression-free survival (PFS) in phase II.Results. A total of 34 patients (6 in phase I, 28 in phase II) were enrolled from May 2010 to June 2011. Baseline characteristics included a median age of 60 years (range: 22-74 years) for 24 men and 10 women. No dose-limiting toxicities appeared in phase I. Median PFS was 240 days (95% confidence interval: 179-311 days). Overall response rate was 18.1%, and the disease-control rate was 90.9%.The incidence of adverse events frequently associated with irinotecan and capecitabine were neutropenia (any grade, 55.9%; grade 3 or 4, 11.8%), diarrhea (any grade, 50%; grade 3 or 4, 5.9%), and hand-foot syndrome (any grade, 61.8%; grade 3 or 4, 5.9%).Conclusion. Our results suggest that XELIRI plus BV is well tolerated and effective as a second-line treatment for mCRC in Japanese patients. This regimen could be especially appropriate for patients resistant to oxaliplatin-based regimens. © AlphaMed Press 2014.

Oshima Y.,Nagoya University | Tanaka H.,Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute | Murakami H.,Nagoya University | Ito Y.,Aichi Cancer Center Central Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Gastric Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Trastuzumab (Tmab) resistance is a major clinical problem to be resolved in patients with HER2-positive gastric cancers. However, in contrast to the situation for HER2-positive breast cancer lines, the Tmab-resistant gastric cancer preclinical models that are needed to develop a new therapy to overcome this problem are not yet available. Methods: We developed three new cell lines from HER2 gene-amplified gastric cancer cell lines (GLM-1, GLM-4, NCI N-87) by a new in vivo selection method consisting of the repeated culture of small residual peritoneal metastasis but not subcutaneous tumor after Tmab treatment. We then evaluated the anti-tumor efficacy of lapatinib for these Tmab-resistant cells. Results: We successfully isolated two Tmab-resistant cell lines (GLM1-HerR2(3), GLM4-HerR2) among the three tested cell lines. These resistant cells differed from the parental cells in their flat morphology and rapid growth in vitro, but HER2, P95HER2 expression, and Tmab binding were essentially the same for the parental and resistant cells. MUC4 expression was up- or downregulated depending on the cell line. These resistant cells were still sensitive to lapatinib, similar to the parental cells, in vitro. This growth inhibition of the Tmab-resistant cells by lapatinib was due to both G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis induction via effective blockade of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways. A preclinical study confirmed that the Tmab-resistant tumors are significantly susceptible to lapatinib. Conclusion: These results suggest that lapatinib has antitumor activity against the Tmab-resistant gastric cancer cell lines, and that these cell lines are useful for understanding the mechanism of Tmab resistance and for developing a new molecular therapy for Tmab-resistant HER2-positive gastric cancers. © 2013 The International Gastric Cancer Association and The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

Kato K.,National Cancer Center Hospital | Tahara M.,National Cancer Center Hospital East | Hironaka S.,Shizuoka Cancer Center | Muro K.,Aichi Cancer Center Central Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of weekly paclitaxel (Taxol®) in patients with advanced or recurrent esophageal cancer. Methods: Fifty-three patients with recurrent or advanced esophageal cancer who had previously received platinum-based chemotherapy were treated with paclitaxel 100 mg/m2 once weekly by 1-h infusion on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, and 36 of a 49-day cycle. Fifty-two patients were evaluable for efficacy and 53 for safety. Forty-one (77%) patients had recurrent, and 12 (23%) had advanced disease. Most patients (52/53) had squamous cell carcinoma, and one had adenocarcinoma. Results: A median of 2 cycles was delivered (range 1-8). The overall response rate was 44.2% (23/52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 30.5, 58.7%), with 4 patients (7.7%) achieving complete response. The median duration of response was 4.8 months, and median overall survival was 10.4 months. The most common Grade 3 or 4 adverse events were neutropenia (52.8%), leukopenia (45.3%), anorexia (9.4%), and fatigue (9.4%). Adverse events resulted in treatment discontinuation in 34.0% of patients and dose reductions in 43.4%. There were no treatment-related deaths. Conclusions: Weekly paclitaxel demonstrated efficacy and manageable toxicity in patients with advanced or recurrent esophageal cancer and may be a treatment option for this population. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Murakami H.,Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute | Murakami H.,Nagoya University | Ito S.,Aichi Cancer Center Central Hospital | Tanaka H.,Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2013

Background: Intraperitoneal (i.p.) chemotherapy with paclitaxel is a potential therapeutic modality for patients with peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer. To overcome paclitaxel resistance, which is a major clinical problem with this modality, prediction of i.p. paclitaxel resistance is critically important. Materials and Methods: We developed three new i.p. paclitaxel-resistant cell lines from parental gastric cancer cell lines by an in vivo selection method using i.p. paclitaxel chemotherapy. With these cell lines, we performed gene expression profiling analysis to select up-regulated genes in i.p. paclitaxel-resistant cells and validated the genes with clinical samples. Results: We successfully isolated nine up-regulated genes in i.p. paclitaxel-resistant cell lines compared with parental cells by microarray analysis, followed by confirmation with quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Among these, we identified four genes, namely kinesin family member-23 (KIF23), ERBB2 interacting protein (ERBB2IP), ATPase family, AAA domain containing-2 (ATAD2) and PHD finger protein (PHF19) as candidate genes for paclitaxel resistance after validation with clinical samples derived from responders and non-responders to paclitaxel treatment. Conclusion: These i.p. paclitaxel-resistant cell lines are ideal models for understanding the mechanism of resistance to i.p. paclitaxel and development of a new therapeutic modality. Four up-regulated genes may be potential new predictive markers for resistance to i.p. paclitaxel in patients with peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer.

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