AIBMR Life Science Inc.

Puyallup, WA, United States

AIBMR Life Science Inc.

Puyallup, WA, United States
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Jensen G.S.,Holger NIS Labs | Ager D.M.,Cascade Chiropractic and Rehabilitation | Redman K.A.,Holger NIS Labs | Mitzner M.A.,Holger NIS Labs | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2011

Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was associated with pain and affected daily living. Participants included but were not limited to those with age-related osteoarthritis. Study participants consumed 120 mL MonaVie Active ® fruit juice, predominantly containing açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and other fruit concentrates, daily for 12 weeks. Study participants were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by structured nurse interviews, pain and activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaires, blood samples, and ROM assessment. Pain was scored by using a visual analogue scale. ROM was assessed by using dual digital inclinometry as recommended by American Medical Association guidelines. Consumption of the juice resulted in significant pain reduction, improved ROM measures, and improvement in ADLs. Serum antioxidant status, as monitored by the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, was improved within 2 weeks and continued to improve throughout the 12 weeks of study participation (P<.01). The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein was reduced at 12 weeks, but this change did not reach statistical significance. Lipid peroxidation decreased mildly at 12 weeks. The antioxidant status, as measured by the CAP-e bioassay, showed the best correlation with improvements in physical well-being (pain, ROM, and ADL). The significant association among increased antioxidant status, improved ROM, and pain reduction warrants further study. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Ruff K.J.,ESM Technologies LLC | Endres J.R.,AIBMR Life Science Inc. | Clewell A.E.,AIBMR Life Science Inc. | Szabo J.R.,Ricerca Biosciences LLC | Schauss A.G.,AIBMR Life Science Inc.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM®) is a novel dietary ingredient that contains naturally occurring glycosaminoglycans and proteins essential for maintaining healthy joint and connective tissues. NEM® was evaluated for safety via in vitro and in vivo toxicological studies. This included testing for cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, acute oral toxicity, and 90-day repeated-dose oral toxicity. NEM® did not exhibit any cytotoxic effects at a dose of 100 μg in an in vitro human cell viability assay after incubation for up to 20. h. NEM® did not exhibit any genotoxic effects in an in vitro assay of four strains of histidine-dependent Salmonella typhimurium and one strain of tryptophan-dependent Escherichia coli at a dose of up to 5000 μg/plate. NEM® did not exhibit any signs of acute toxicity in rats at a single oral dose of up to 2000. mg/kg body weight, nor signs of toxicity (via urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, or histopathological evaluation) in rats at a repeated oral dose of up to 2000. mg/kg body weight per day for 90. days. The results of these studies suggest that NEM® may be safe for human consumption. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Sun X.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Seeberger J.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Alberico T.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Wang C.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | And 3 more authors.
Experimental Gerontology | Year: 2010

Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementation at 2% in the food increased the lifespan of female flies fed a high fat diet compared to the non-supplemented control. We measured transcript changes induced by açai for age-related genes. Although transcript levels of most genes tested were not altered, açai increased the transcript level of l(2)efl, a small heat-shock-related protein, and two detoxification genes, GstD1 and MtnA, while decreasing the transcript level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), a key gene involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, açai increased the lifespan of oxidative stressed females caused by sod1 RNAi. This suggests that açai improves survival of flies fed a high fat diet through activation of stress response pathways and suppression of Pepck expression. Açai has the potential to antagonize the detrimental effect of fat in the diet and alleviate oxidative stress in aging.


Kang J.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Xie C.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Li Z.,Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry | Nagarajan S.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Five flavonoids, (2S,3S)-dihyrokaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucoside (1) and its isomer (2R,3R)-dihydrokaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucoside (2) , isovitexin (3), velutin (4) and 5,4′-dihydroxy-7,3′,5′-trimethoxyflavone (5), were isolated from acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based upon spectroscopic and chemical analyses. To our knowledge, compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 were identified from acai pulp for the first time. The in vitro antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated by the oxygen radial absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The ORAC values varied distinctly (4458.0-22404.5 μmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g) from 5,4′-dihydroxy-7,3′,5′-trimethoxyflavone (5) to isovitexin (3) and were affected by the numbers/positions of hydroxyl groups, substitute groups, as well as stereo configuration. The anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds were screened by the secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter assay, which is designed to measure NF-κB activation. Velutin (4) was found to dose-dependently inhibit SEAP secretion in RAW-blue cells induced by LPS, with an IC50 value of 2.0 μM. Velutin (4) also inhibited SEAP secretion induced by oxidised LDL, indicating potential athero-protective effects. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Schauss A.G.,AIBMR Life Science Inc. | Stenehjem J.,University of California at San Diego | Park J.,Biocell | Endres J.R.,AIBMR Life Science Inc. | Clewell A.,AIBMR Life Science Inc.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a significant source of pain and disability. Current medical and surgical treatments can be costly and have serious side effects. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the tolerability and efficacy of BioCell Collagen (BCC), a low molecular weight dietary supplement consisting of hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract, in the treatment of OA symptoms. Patients (n = 80) in the study had physician-verified evidence of progressive OA in their hip and/or knee joint. Joint pain had been present for 3 months or longer at enrollment, and pain levels were 4 or higher at baseline as assessed by Physician Global Assessment scores. Subjects were divided into two groups and administered either 2 g of BCC or placebo for 70 days. Other outcome measurements included visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores taken on days 1, 35, and 70. The tolerability profile of the treatment group was comparable to that of the placebo. Intent-to-treat analysis showed that the treatment group, as compared to placebo, had a significant reduction of VAS pain on day 70 (p < 0.001) and of WOMAC scores on both days 35 (p = 0.017) and 70 (p < 0.001). The BCC group experienced a significant improvement in physical activities compared to the placebo group on days 35 (p = 0.007) and 70 (p < 0.001). BCC was well tolerated and found to be effective in managing OA-associated symptoms over the study period, thereby improving patient's activities of daily living. BCC can be considered a potential complement to current OA therapies. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Kang J.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Li Z.,Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry | Wu T.,Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry | Jensen G.S.,NIS Labs | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been demonstrated to exhibit extremely high anti-oxidant capacity. Seven major flavonoids were isolated from freeze-dried acai pulp by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated as orientin (1), homoorientin (2), vitexin (3), luteolin (4), chrysoeriol (5), quercetin (6), and dihydrokaempferol (7) by NMR, MS and compared with the reported literature. Compounds 3 and 6 were reported from acai pulp for the first time. Anti-oxidant capacities of these flavonoids were evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, cell-based anti-oxidant protection (CAP-e) assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells (ROS PMN assay). ORAC values varied distinctly (1420-14,800 μmol TE/g) among the seven compounds based on numbers and positions of hydroxyl groups and/or other substitute groups. The ORAC values of aglycones are generally higher than that of glycosides. CAP-e results indicated that only three compounds (4, 6 and 7) could enter the cytosol and contribute to the reduction of oxidative damage within the cell. The ROS PMN assay showed that five compounds (2-3 and 5-7) demonstrated exceptional effects by reducing ROS formation in PMN cells, which produced high amounts of ROS under oxidative stress. In evaluating the anti-oxidant capacity of natural products, combining both chemical and cell-based assays will provide more comprehensive understanding of anti-oxidant effects and potential biological relevance. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Poulose S.M.,Tufts University | Fisher D.R.,Tufts University | Bielinski D.F.,Tufts University | Gomes S.M.,Tufts University | And 3 more authors.
Nutrition | Year: 2014

Objectives: Oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in the brain often causes progressive neuronal degeneration and death that are the focal traits of chronic and acute pathologies, including those involving cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of both Euterpe oleracea and Euterpe precatoria açaí fruit pulp on restoring stressor-induced calcium dysregulation, stunted growth of basal dendrites, and autophagy inhibition using embryonic hippocampal and HT22 hippocampal neurons. Methods: Water-soluble whole fruit pulp extracts from two açaí species were applied to rat primary neurons and HT22 hippocampal neurons with varied time and concentrations. Recovery of neurons from dopamine-induced Ca2+ dysregulation was measured by live cell imaging using fluorescent microscopy. The effect of açaí fruit pulp extracts on neurons following chemically-induced autophagy inhibition was measured using both immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques. Results: It has been postulated that at least part of the loss of cognitive function in aging may depend on a dysregulation in calcium ion (Ca2+) homeostasis and a loss of autophagy function in the brain, which affects numerous signaling pathways and alters protein homeostasis. In the present study, polyphenol-rich fruit pulp extracts from two species of açaí, Euterpe precatoria and Euterpe oleracea, when applied to rat hippocampal primary neuronal cells (E18), caused a significant (P<0.05) recovery of depolarized brain cells from dopamine-induced Ca2+ influx. Autophagy, a protein homeostasis mechanism in brain, when blocked by known inhibitors such as bafilomycin A1 or wortmannin, caused a significant reduction in the growth of primary basal dendrites in rodent primary hippocampal neurons and significant accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins in mouse HT22 hippocampal neurons in culture. However, pretreatment with açaí extracts up to 1mg/mL significantly increased the length of basal dendrites and attenuated the inhibitor-induced autophagy dysfunction. Açaí extracts activated the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin, increased the turnover of autophagosomes and MAP1 B LC3-II, and decreased accumulation of LC3-ubiquitin binding P62/SQSTM1. Conclusion: Although the polyphenol profile of Euterpe precatoria showed substantially higher concentrations of major flavonoids han Euterpe oleracea, the relative effects were essentially similar for both species. The study adds to growing evidence that supports the putative health effects of açaí fruit species on brain cells. © 2014.


Poulose S.M.,Tufts University | Fisher D.R.,Tufts University | Larson J.,Tufts University | Bielinski D.F.,Tufts University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Age-related diseases of the brain compromise memory, learning, and movement and are directly linked with increases in oxidative stress and inflammation. Previous research has shown that supplementation with berries can modulate signaling in primary hippocampal neurons or BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Because of their high polyphenolic content, fruit pulp fractions of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) were explored for their protective effect on BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Freeze-dried açai pulp was fractionated using solvents with different polarities and analyzed using HPLC for major anthocyanins and other phenolics. Fractions extracted using methanol (MEOH) and ethanol (ETOH) were particularly rich in anthocyanins such as cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, and peonidin, whereas the fraction extracted using acetone (ACE) was rich in other phenolics such as catechin, ferulic acid, quercetin, resveratrol, and synergic and vanillic acids. Studies were conducted to investigate the mitigating effects of açai pulp extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL) induced oxidative stress and inflammation; treatment of BV-2 cells with acai fractions resulted in significant (p < 0.05) decreases in nitrite production, accompanied by a reduction in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. The inhibition pattern was emulated with the ferulic acid content among the fractions. The protection of microglial cells by açai pulp extracts, particularly that of MEOH, ETOH, and ACE fractions, was also accompanied by a significant concentration-dependent reduction in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). The current study offers valuable insights into the protective effects of açai pulp fractions on brain cells, which could have implications for improved cognitive and motor functions. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Xie C.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Kang J.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Burris R.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Ferguson M.E.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2011

Objective: Açaí fruit pulp has received much attention because of its high antioxidant capacity and potential anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, athero-protective effects of açaí juice were investigated in apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE-/-) mice. Methods and results: ApoE-/- mice were fed AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 5% freeze-dried açaí juice powder (AJ) for 20 weeks. The mean lesion areas in the aorta for apoE-/- mice fed AJ were 58% less (P<0.001) compared to that for CD fed mice. HDL-cholesterol was higher in AJ fed mice. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, including F2-isoprostanes and isomers of hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids were significantly lower in serum and in liver of AJ fed mice. Expression of the two antioxidant enzyme genes, Gpx3 and Gsr, were significantly up-regulated in the aorta from AJ fed mice. The activity of GPX, GSR and PON1 increased in serum and/or liver of mice fed AJ. In the second experiment, ApoE-/- mice were fed CD or AJ for 5 weeks. Serum levels, gene expression and protein levels of the two proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in the resident macrophages with or without LPS stimulation were lower in mice fed AJ. SEAP reporter assay determined that AJ reduced NF-κB activation. Conclusion: Reducing lipid peroxidation through boosting antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine production are proposed as major underlying mechanisms for the athero-protective effects of the açaí juice tested in these experimental in vivo models. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Schauss A.G.,AIBMR Life Science Inc.
International journal of toxicology | Year: 2011

L-(+)-ergothioneine has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo and has uses as a dietary supplement and as an ingredient in foods, cosmetics, and as a pharmaceutical additive. The clastogenic potential and mutagenic of ergothioneine were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Ergothioneine concentrations up to 5000 μg/mL, with and without metabolic activation, was tested in the chromosome aberration assay with CHL cells and found not to induce structural chromosome aberrations. In the in vivo mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test, ergothioneine was administered orally to male mice at doses up to 1500 mg/kg for potential genotoxic activity. No increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was observed.  Overall, ergothioneine was not genotoxic in these studies and provides additional experimental evidence supporting the safety of its use as a potential dietary supplement.

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