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Dydek Z.T.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Lavretsky E.,AIAA - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
IEEE Control Systems Magazine | Year: 2010

The role of control in NASA's X-15 program in Lyapunov-stability-based design of the X-15-3 was examined. The X-15-3 was one of the earliest aircrafts to feature an adaptive control scheme. The Honeywell MH-96 self-adaptive controller adjusted control parameters online to enforce performance of the aircraft throughout the flight envelope. Preliminary design work for the X-15 started in 1955 and the program recorded around 200 successful flights between 1959 to 1968. Significant feedback from tradeoffs between stability and performance directed the development of the field toward the design, analysis, and synthesis of stable adaptive systems. Various adaptive control methods were also developed for controlling linear and nonlinear dynamic systems with parametric and dynamic uncertainties. The design concept for the MH-96 adaptive controller was to achieve a high level of performance throughout the flight envelope.


Meng T.,Zhejiang University | Matunaga S.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Matunaga S.,AIAA - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics | Year: 2011

The article presents a simple modified singular-direction avoidance steering (SDA) method while achieving similar performance with current, more complicated, methods. Based on the principle of singular-value decomposition (SVD), the SDA steering logic is augmented with a geometric principal rotation of singular vectors. This rotation introduces additional torque direction error to prevent zero gimbal-rate output when commanded torque is nonzero. When the commanded torque lies in the plane orthogonal to the direction of the smallest singular value, the SDA steering law can obtain an exact solution. The torque error is determined by both the torque projection change and the singular-value redistribution of the smallest singular value. It is equivalent to add a torque error to change the direction of the commanded torque. Meanwhile, a singularity avoidance parameter on the smallest singular value is used to adjust the singular-value redistribution of the Jacobian matrix.


Landis G.A.,AIAA - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition | Year: 2012

From the very beginning, science fiction and spaceflight have had a very close relationship, with science fiction both stimulating and in turn being stimulated by developments in real-world science. For example, Johannes Kepler's novel Somnium (ca 1634) was both a work of science fiction, and also one of the earliest works of lunar astronomy; while Jules Verne's 1865 De la Terre à la Lune ("From the Earth to the Moon") anticipated the Apollo missions, while "The Brick Moon," by Edward Everett Hale (1869) anticipated the use of satellites for navigation. This presentation discusses some of the history, and presents some of the remarkable parallels and shared inspiration between science fiction and spaceflight. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.


Gruntman M.,AIAA - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2016

This article tells a little known story of the first anti-aircraft system SA-1 in the Soviet Union, the first nonnuclear intercept of a long-range ballistic missile, and emergence of missile defense. © 2016 IEEE.


Sundararajan V.,AIAA - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
AIAA SPACE 2013 Conference and Exposition | Year: 2013

On August 15, 2012, the 66th Independence Day of India, Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh formally announced Mangalyaan, the nation's first interplanetary mission to Mars. The Mars Orbiter mission was initiated by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to study the upper atmosphere of the most Earth like planet in the Solar System. Mangalyaan orbiter is planned to be launched to an initial Earth orbit in October 2013 by a PSLV-XL rocket. The spacecraft will begin the Mars Transfer Trajectory (MTT) on November 26, 2013. By September 22, 2014, the spacecraft will be placed in a highly elliptical orbit after the crucial Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) maneuver by firing the 440 N Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM). The Indian Mars Orbiter mission is being developed as a technology demonstration mission with five experimental science payloads. One of the main objectives of the first Indian mission to Mars is to develop the technologies required for the design, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission. This paper presents an overview of the technology and science objectives of India's first interplanetary mission to Mars, launch vehicle, spacecraft architecture, science instruments, mission design and program management.


Sundararajan V.,AIAA - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
51st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition 2013 | Year: 2013

The introduction of the Light Sport Aircraft (LSA) category by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) along with the Sport Pilot certificate regulations in 2004 provided a major impetus in access to sport and recreational aviation. These changes were the most significant enacted by the FAA in fifty years and allow for easier and lower cost means to the privilege of enjoying the benefits of flying. Special Light-Sport Aircraft or S-LSA, are 100% factory built light aircraft that may be used commercially for flight training instruction and rental. These aircrafts are certified using industry consensus standards created with guidance from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International and approved by the FAA. These include fixed-wing airplanes, weight-shift control (trikes), powered parachutes, gliders, gyroplanes, and lighter-than-air (balloons and airships). This paper presents a case study of select special light sport airplanes comparing and analyzing their airplane design, performance and cost. A systems architecture based design-structure matrix (DSM) analysis has been carried out for the Allegro LSA. It also provides an overview of the sport pilot certification and its impact in pilot training time and cost and in increasing the general pilot population. An economic analysis of the S-LSA marketplace is also highlighted. © 2013 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.


Sundararajan V.,AIAA - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
AIAA SPACE 2013 Conference and Exposition | Year: 2013

India's space program has evolved from an Earth observation orientation to a multidimensional space program that includes several space exploration missions to the Moon, Mars and space observatories. The successful launch of the Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon in 2008 is a harbinger for the emerging Indian Space Exploration Program (ISEP). Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is scheduled to launch a Mars Orbiter ("Mangalyaan") mission in October-November 2013 and a multi-wavelength astronomical observatory (Astrosat-1) mission to be launched in 2014. The design, development and operation of a spacecraft for an interplanetary mission or for an astronomical observatory are a complex technical project endeavor. Systems engineering tools are utilized to analyze project architectures and technology choices during the project planning phase. Design Structure Matrix (DSM) is a network modeling tool used for designing, developing and managing complex systems. This paper presents a component based interface-technology risk design structure matrix (TR-DSM) analytical framework for evaluating project risk assessment of three of India's space exploration missions - Chandrayaan-1 orbiter mission to the Moon, Mangalyaan orbiter mission to the Mars and the Astrosat-1 multi-wavelength astronomical observatory.


Sundararajan V.,AIAA - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
2013 Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference | Year: 2013

General Aviation (GA) plays a significant role in the national economy and is the primary training ground for most commercial pilots. Single-engine piston airplanes comprise about 60% of GA fleet in the United States. The introduction of the Light Sport Aircraft (LSA) category and the Sport Pilot certificate regulations by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in 2004 provided impetus in access to sport and recreational aviation. The design and development of modern GA piston airplanes utilizes several systems engineering management tools for sustainable product development (SPD). This paper presents case studies on piston airplane design using engineering management tools such as stakeholder analysis, design structure matrix (DSM), domain mapping matrix (DMM) and modularity.


Sundararajan V.,AIAA - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
AIAA SPACE 2015 Conference and Exposition | Year: 2015

Indian Space Program operates the world’s largest constellation of civil remote-sensing satellites through its Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites system. Since the founding of the nation’s space program in 1969 with the establishment of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Earth Observation through satellites has been a core objective of the Indian Space Program harnessing the space technology for national development. The IRS system supports the Indian national economy in the areas of agriculture, water resources, forestry, ecology, geology, watersheds, marine fisheries and coastal management, and advanced research in Earth Sciences. The meteorological payloads of the Indian National Satellites (INSAT) system provide for weather and natural disaster management support. The IRS satellites system began in 1988 with the launch of IRS-1A satellite. The IRS series of satellites are designed and built by the ISRO Satellite Center based in Bengaluru while the ISRO Space Application Center in Ahmedabad fabricates the remote sensing payloads and cameras. The National Remote Sensing Center (NRSC) based in Hyderabad is responsible for acquisition, processing and supply of data to the various national programs that utilize the remote-sensing data for optimal use of country’s national resources and water management. The National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS), an autonomous organization under the aegis of the Indian Department of Space oversees interagency coordination among the various national departments that utilize the EO data and addresses underutilization and inadequacies in regional and district level ground facilities. This paper presents a Stakeholder Value Network (SVN), a multi-relation model to analyze the Indian Earth Observation system providing key insights on one of the world’s largest space based Earth Observation program, as well as the value-added roles of each stakeholder within the network. © 2015, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc.


Sundararajan V.,AIAA - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
AIAA SPACE Conference and Exposition 2012 | Year: 2012

The Indian Space Program (ISP) entered a new era in its quest for deep space exploration when an indigenous PSLV-XL rocket successfully launched India's first deep space mission, Chandrayaan-1 Orbiter, to the lunar polar orbit on October 22, 2008. Chandrayaan-I spacecraft carried eleven scientific instruments including two from NASA, three from ESA and one from Bulgaria. The Indian Moon Impact Probe (MIP) was released from an altitude of 100 KM on November 18, 2011 and impacted the Moon near the Shackleton crater in the South Pole. The Chandra's Altitudinal Composition Explorer (CHACE) payload that was part of MIP and the NASA instrument Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard the spacecraft showed direct and conclusive evidence of small amounts of OH/H2O on the uppermost surface of the Moon. Chandrayaan-II mission is being developed as a joint Indo-Russian space venture. ISRO is designing the Chandrayaan-II Orbiter and a Lunar Rover while ROSCOSMOS is providing the Lunar Landing Platform. ISRO has also finalized five Indian scientific instruments for the Chandrayaan-II Mission that is planned for a launch by Indian GSLV Rocket in 2014-15. This paper presents an overview of the Chandrayaan I and II missions that form part of the Indian Lunar Space Exploration Program. A study of the space science goals and scientific findings, deep space infrastructure developments, international cooperation, and economics of the Indian lunar missions are also outlined. © 2012 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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