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Addlestone, United Kingdom

Bidewell C.A.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Drew J.R.,Mildmay Farm and Stud | Payne J.H.,Imperial College London | Sayers A.R.,AHVLA Weybridge | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Record | Year: 2012

Following the initial diagnosis of chronic copper poisoning (CCP), the copper (Cu) status of a British dairy herd was investigated. Eight fatal cases of CCP were identified over a 17-month period, from December 1999 to May 2001, involving seven Jersey cows and one Holstein-Friesian; seven cows were dry when CCP occurred. Case diagnostic criteria were necrotising hepatopathy associated with abnormally high liver and kidney Cu concentrations. Analysis of the ration for the high-yielding Jersey cow group revealed about 50 mg Cu/kg dry matter intake (DMI). Risk factors predisposing to fatal CCP were Jersey breed, previous high yield, first two weeks of the dry period and moderately high dietary Cu (greater than 40 mg Cu/kg DMI).

Martin I.F.,AHVLA Weybridge | AbuOun M.,AHVLA Weybridge | Reichel R.,AHVLA Thirsk | La Ragione R.M.,AHVLA Weybridge | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Objectives: In 2009, CTX-M Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella isolates were recovered from a UK pig farm, prompting studies into the dissemination of the resistance and to establish any relationships between the isolates. Methods: PFGEwas used to elucidate clonal relationships between isolates whilst plasmid profiling, restriction analysis, sequencing and PCR were used to characterize the CTX-M-harbouring plasmids. Results: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella 4,5,12:i:- and Bovismorbificans resistant to cefotaxime (n=65) were recovered and 63 were shown by PCR to harbour a group 1 CTX-M gene. The harbouring hosts were diverse, but the group 1 CTX-Mplasmidswere common. Three sequenced CTX-Mplasmids from E.coli, K.pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica serotype 4,5,12:i:-were identical except for sevenmutations and highly similar to IncI1 plasmid ColIb-P9. Two antimicrobial resistance regions were identified: one inserted upstreamof yacABC harbouring ISCR2 transposases, sul2 and floR; and the other inserted within shfB of the pilV shufflon harbouring the ISEcp1 transposase followed by blaCTX-M-1. Conclusions: These data suggest that an ST108 IncI1 plasmid encoding a blaCTX-M-1 gene had disseminated across multiple genera on this farm, an example of horizontal gene transfer of the blaCTX-M-1 gene. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

Jeckel S.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratory Agency | Wood A.,AHVLA Lasswade | Grant K.,Public Health England | Amar C.,Public Health England | And 6 more authors.
Avian Pathology | Year: 2015

An outbreak of neurological disease was investigated in red-legged partridges between 8 and 28 days of age. Clinical signs included torticollis, head tilt and incoordination and over an initial eight day period approximately 30–40 fatalities occurred per day. No significant gross post mortem findings were detected. Histopathological examination of the brain and bacterial cultures followed by partial sequencing confirmed a diagnosis of encephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes. Further isolates were obtained from follow-up carcasses, environmental samples and pooled tissue samples of newly imported day-old chicks prior to placement on farm. These isolates had the same antibiotic resistance pattern as the isolate of the initial post mortem submission and belonged to the same fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) subtype. This suggested that the isolates were very closely related or identical and that the pathogen had entered the farm with the imported day-old chicks, resulting in disease manifestation in partridges between 8 and 28 days of age. Reports of outbreaks of encephalitic listeriosis in avian species are rare and this is to the best of our knowledge the first reported outbreak in red-legged partridges. © 2015 Houghton Trust Ltd.

Allen A.R.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | Dale J.,AHVLA Weybridge | McCormick C.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | Mallon T.R.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | And 6 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

To further understand the epidemic of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, we identified 16 mutations that are phylogenetically informative for Mycobacterium bovis strains from these regions. We determined the status of these mutations among a collection of 501 strains representing the molecular diversity found in these three regions of the British Isles. The resulting linear phylogenies from each region were concordant, showing that the same lineage of M. bovis was present. The dominance of this lineage is unique within Europe, and suggests that in the past the populations were homogenous. Comparison of approximately 500 strains isolated in 2005 from each region by spoligotype and 5 locus VNTR profiling, revealed distinct differences in the genotype frequencies and sub-lineage makeup between each region. We concluded that whilst each region shared the same major phylogenetic lineage of M. bovis, more recent evolution had resulted in the development of region-specific populations. Regional differences in the M. bovis populations suggest that it may be possible to identify the movement of strains from one region to another. © 2013.

Siso S.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Martin S.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Konold T.,AHVLA Weybridge | Hawkins S.A.C.,AHVLA Weybridge | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Pathology | Year: 2012

In sheep infected experimentally with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, amplification of infectivity in peripheral organs during early preclinical stages is thought to contribute to high titres of the agent being detected in blood, with subsequent haematogenous neuroinvasion through the circumventricular organs (CVOs). In contrast, little disease-associated prion protein (PrPd) or infectivity is detected in the peripheral tissues of cattle during the preclinical and clinical stages of BSE. The aim of this study was to investigate immunohistochemically the role of haematogenous neuroinvasion in cattle with spontaneously arising and experimentally induced BSE. There was almost complete absence of PrPd in the peripheral organs of BSE infected cattle. Additionally, there was minimal involvement of the CVOs during preclinical disease and there was progressive caudorostral accumulation of PrPd in the brain. These findings do not support haematogenous neuroinvasion in the bovine disease. © 2012.

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