Legesse T.B.,AHRI |
Schneider J.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Ethiopian Medical Journal
Background: Malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor defined by some histopathologic variables which dictate its behavior and vary in different populations. To date, no data exist on these histopathologic characteristics in Ethiopian Patients. Objective: To describe histopathologic features of primary cutaneous melanoma in Ethiopian patients. Method: In an attempt to define these features, histologic slides and patient record forms of cases diagnosed as primary cutaneous malignant melanoma were retrieved from records of the Pathology Department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital. From the patient records demographic variables including age ,sex and anatomic location were documented. The histologic slides were revised for pathologic parameters like, histologic type, depth of invasion, host lymphocytic infiltration and pigmentation. Results: A total of 50 cases of primary cutaneous malignant melanoma were diagnosed in the period of 1999-2005 in Tikur Anbesa Hospital, pathology department. There were equal numbers of male and female patients; the mean age was 51.6 years. Most of the melanomas (64%) were located on the foot. The vast majority (96%) of the cases were nodular melanomas while there was one case of acral lentiginous melanoma and another case of superficial spreading melanoma. Seven (14%) were nonpigmented melanomas. The prognosis was poor with 72% of the cases showing Clark level V invasion and mean Breslow tumor thickness of 6.02mm. Ulceration was present in the majority (83.3%) of the cases. Conclusion: Melanoma in Ethiopian patients is characterized by late stage presentation associated with poor prognosis and high preponderance to the foot. The higher prevalence of nodular melanomas with deep vertical invasion support the argument that this type might be a result of progression of other forms as most of our cases were late stage melanomas. Source
News Article | September 6, 2016
The 2017 International Air-Conditioning, Heating, Refrigerating Exposition (AHR Expo) will return to Las Vegas from Jan. 30 to Feb. 1, 2017, at the Las Vegas Convention Center. The AHR Expo, which began more than 85 years ago as a heating and ventilation show, has now grown into one of the world’s largest HVACR events. The Exposition is held annually in key markets and major cities across the U.S., hosting close to 2,000 exhibitors and bringing in crowds of 60,000 industry professionals. The Show provides a unique forum for the HVACR community to come together and share new products, technologies, and ideas. The event is co-sponsored by ASHRAE and AHRI, and is held concurrently with ASHRAE’s Winter Conference.
News Article | August 2, 2016
The International Air-Conditioning, Heating, Refrigerating Exposition (AHR Expo), which began more than 85 years ago as a heating and ventilation show, has now grown into one of the world’s largest HVACR events. The 2017 show will be held on Jan. 30-Feb. 1 in Las Vegas, Nev. The Exposition is held annually in key markets and major cities across the U.S., hosting close to 2,000 exhibitors and bringing in crowds of 60,000 industry professionals. The Show provides a unique forum for the HVACR community to come together and share new products, technologies, and ideas. The event is co-sponsored by ASHRAE and AHRI, and is held concurrently with ASHRAE’s Winter Conference. Las Vegas, Nev. www.ahrexpo.com
Commonly known as wild radish, and a deceptively attractive flowering plant, its seed can persist for many years in a dormant state, making it one of the most difficult weeds to control. A survey by the Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative (AHRI), showed an increase in the number of Group B herbicide resistant populations from 54 percent (2003) to 84 per cent (2010). The survey also showed a jump in resistance to 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, commonly known as 2,4 D from 60 per cent to 76 per cent. A survey, currently occurring across the grain belt, will provide scientists with more information on the resistance levels in wild radish populations. To add to the challenge of controlling the prolific weed, populations often showed resistance across multiple herbicide chemistries, AHRI senior research officer Mechelle Owen says. "While the 2010 survey was random across 14 million hectares of the grain belt, in this current study we will be collecting many samples from the same paddocks as 2010 to compare changes in resistance levels," she says. "In our 2010 study we collected 96 radish populations from the 466 crop fields sampled." The results of both the 2003 and 2010 surveys provide greater evidence of the importance of integrated weed management strategies on farm, particularly in regard to harvest weed seed eradication, Ms Owen says. "If farmers can't use herbicides, they have to look at other options, such as chaff carts, windrow burning, seed destruction, and also sacrificing crops if they have a really high weed burden," she says. Findings from the 2010 survey also indicated the radish was moving further south into the southern agricultural belt. The control of wild radish now rates as one of the top five weed challenges for WA farmers, Ms Owen says. Since wild radish can germinate at any time given adequate moisture, the plant can be a host for numerous other pests and diseases. At harvest time, the weed seed is difficult to grade out of wheat and lupin crops, since the seed is of a similar size. Explore further: Resistance evolution in weeds puts 2,4-D under the microscope More information: Mechelle J. Owen et al. Multiple herbicide-resistant wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) populations dominate Western Australian cropping fields, Crop and Pasture Science (2015). DOI: 10.1071/CP15063
Rakotosamimanana N.,Institute Pasteur Of Madagascar |
Raharimanga V.,Institute Pasteur Of Madagascar |
Andriamandimby S.F.,Institute Pasteur Of Madagascar |
Soares J.-L.,Institute Pasteur Of Madagascar |
And 26 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology
The majority of healthy individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis will not develop tuberculosis (TB), though many may become latently infected. More precise measurement of the human immune response to M. tuberculosis infection may help us understand this difference and potentially identify those subjects most at risk of developing active disease. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production has been widely used as a proxy marker to study infection and to examine the human immune response to specific M. tuberculosis antigens. It has been suggested that genetically distinct M. tuberculosis strains may invoke different immune responses, although how these differences influence the immune responses and clinical outcome in human tuberculosis is still poorly understood. We therefore evaluated the antigen-specific IFN-γ production responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from two cohorts of subjects recruited in Antananarivo, Madagascar, from 2004 to 2006 and examined the influence of the infecting M. tuberculosis strains on this response. The cohorts were sputumpositive index cases and their household contacts. Clinical strains isolated from the TB patients were typed by spoligotyping. Comparison of the IFN-γ responses with the spoligotype of the infecting clinical strains showed that "modern" M. tuberculosis strains, like Beijing and Central Asian (CAS) strains, tended to induce lower IFN-γ responses than "ancient" strains, like East African-Indian (EAI) strains, in index cases and their household contacts. These results suggest that new strains may have evolved to induce a host response different from that of ancient strains. These findings could have important implications in the development of therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source