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Schwarzhans W.,Ahrensburger Weg 103 | Bratishko A.,Institute Geologicheski Nauk
Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie - Abhandlungen | Year: 2011

Fish otoliths are described from the middle Paleocene (Selandian) from temporary outcrops at Luzanivka, Cherkasy district, Central Ukraine. A total of 26 species are described, 15 as newly established and 5 in open nomenclature. This is the first record of Paleocene otoliths from the Ukraine and the central Ukrainian Basin, which formed the most westward extension of the Caspian Basin during early Tertiary times. As a consequence the fauna from Luzanivka shows a considerable regional differentiation from the better known Paleocene otolith-based fish faunas of central and western Europe, which is expressed in the high amount of new species. The location is on the fringes of the basin, on the stable Ukrainian shield south of the deep Dnjeper graben in a shallow, near shore environment with coral patches. The first fossil occurrence of a relative of the recent 'garden eels' is remarkable in this respect (Heteroconger astroblematicus n. sp.). Of particular interest from a phylogenetic point of view are certain gadiform otoliths (genus Merlucciidarum antiquus n. sp. and Maorigadus ukrainicus n. sp., the latter probably related to the basal gadiform family Muraenolepididae) and very plesiomorphic percoid otoliths (genus Epigonidarum tyassminensis n. sp., genus Sparidarum spatiatus n. sp., genus Haemulidarum gullentopsi and genus Haemulidarum makarenkoi n. sp.). Further new taxa described are: Chlorophthalmus udovichenkoi n. sp., Arius subtilis n. sp., Fierasferoides bucculentus n. sp., Gadophycis serratus n. sp., Ogilbia luzanensis n. sp., genus Bythitidarum rozenbergi n. sp., Centroberyx anguinicauda n. sp., genus Holocentridarum ryabchuni n. sp. and genus Leiognathidarum tashlikensis n. sp. © 2011 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.


Schwarzhans W.,Ahrensburger Weg 103 | Schwarzhans W.,Universitetsparken 15 | Bradic K.,University of Belgrade | Rundic L.,University of Belgrade
Palaontologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2015

Abstract: We describe here the first fossil otoliths from the Middle Miocene (Badenian and Sarmatian) of Belgrade, Serbia. They were obtained from Lower Badenian outcrops at Slanci and from upper Badenian and Sarmatian sediments recovered from four shallow wells near the village of Barajevo. The otoliths from the Lower Badenian of Slanci represent fishes typical for an open marine environment, characterized primarily by the mesopelagic families Myctophidae and Bregmacerotidae, a faunal composition that is also well known from other time equivalent locations in the Central Paratethys. The upper Badenian and Sarmatian composition of the fish fauna, in contrast, is dominated by otoliths of the family Gobiidae, indicating a sharp environmental shift from open marine to shallow water, probably slightly brackish environments, which is also confirmed by the faunal composition of mollusks, foraminifera, and ostracods. Most of the gobiid genera identified in the samples from Barajevo represent small fishes of the so-called sand gobies with Ponto-Caspian affinities, such as Economidichthys, Knipowitschia, or Pomatoschistus, or are entirely endemic to the Ponto-Caspian Basin, such as Hyrcanogobius. Another group of endemic Ponto-Caspian gobies is the first fossil record interpreted to represent the genus Proterorhinus. These and other finds currently being investigated indicate that the origin of the extant, rich, endemic gobiid fauna of the Ponto-Caspian Basin dates back to a crucial time in the development of Paratethys during the Middle Miocene when it segregated from the Mediterranean with the onset of phases of low salinity in the basin. In addition, we briefly discuss the distribution of certain gobiid species during Late Badenian and Sarmatian as it begins to emerge. The following new taxa are described based on fossil otoliths: Hyrcanogobius hesperis n.sp. and Proterorhinus vasilievae n.sp. © 2015 The Author(s)


Schwarzhans W.,Ahrensburger Weg 103 | Schwarzhans W.,Universitetsparken 15 | Mors T.,Swedish Museum of Natural History | Engelbrecht A.,University of Vienna | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology | Year: 2016

The first record of fossil teleostean otoliths from Antarctica is reported. The fossils were obtained from late Early Eocene shell beds of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island that represent the last temperate marine climate phase in Antarctica prior to the onset of cooling and subsequent glaciation during the late Eocene. A total of 17 otolith-based teleost taxa are recognized, with 10 being identifiable to species level containing nine new species and one new genus: Argentina antarctica sp. nov., Diaphus? marambionis sp. nov., Macruronus eastmani sp. nov., Coelorinchus balushkini sp. nov., Coelorinchus nordenskjoeldi sp. nov., Palimphemus seymourensis sp. nov., Hoplobrotula? antipoda sp. nov., Notoberyx cionei gen. et sp. nov. and Cepola anderssoni sp. nov. Macruronus eastmani sp. nov. is also known from the late Eocene of Southern Australia, and Tripterophycis immutatus Schwarzhans, widespread in the southern oceans during the Eocene, has been recorded from New Zealand, southern Australia, and now Antarctica. The otolith assemblage shows a typical composition of temperate fishes dominated by gadiforms, very similar at genus and family levels to associations known from middle Eocene strata of New Zealand and the late Eocene of southern Australia, but also to the temperate Northern Hemisphere associations from the Paleocene of Denmark. The Seymour Island fauna bridges a gap in the record of global temperate marine teleost faunas during the early Eocene climate maximum. The dominant gadiforms are interpreted as the main temperate faunal component, as in the Paleocene of Denmark. Here they are represented by the families Moridae, Merlucciidae (Macruroninae), Macrouridae and Gadidae. Nowadays Gadidae are a chiefly Northern Hemisphere temperate family. Moridae, Macruroninae and Macrouridae live today on the lower shelf to deep-water or mesopelagically with Macruroninae being restricted to the Southern Ocean. The extant endemic Antarctic gadiform family Muraenolepididae is missing, as are the dominant modern Antarctic fishes of the perciform suborder Notothenioidei. Recently, there has been much debate on isolated jaw bones of teleost fishes found in the La Meseta Formation and whether they would represent gadiforms (Merlucciidae in this case) or some early, primitive notothenioid. Otoliths are known to often complement rather than duplicate skeletal finds. With this in mind, we conclude that our otolith data support the presence of gadiforms in the early Eocene of Antarctica while it does not rule out the presence of notothenioids at the same time. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A30E5364-0003-4467-B902-43A41AD456CC © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.


Schwarzhans W.,Ahrensburger Weg 103 | Nielsen J.G.,Copenhagen University
Beagle | Year: 2011

Following recent systematic revisions of Anderson (2005, 2007), seven species of the viviparous genus Microbrotula (Teleostei: Bythitidae) have been described, all from the Indo-west Pacific Ocean. Six of these species are here recognised as valid: M. bentleyi, M. greenfieldi, M. punicea, M. queenslandica, M. randalli and M. rubra. Microbrotula polyactis is regarded as a junior synonym of M. bentleyi. Two additional new species, M. andersoni and M. hamata, obtained from Christmas Island (eastern Indian Ocean) and New Caledonia, respectively, are described herein. The main specific characters distinguishing the new species are the number of precaudal vertebrae, numbers of pectoral, caudal and dorsal fin rays, number and distribution of head pores, number and distribution of sensory papillae on the head and lateral line, presence or absence of a (mostly hidden) curved spine at the lower angle of the preopercle, and otolith morphology. The limits of the genus Microbrotula are redefined and the genus is compared with other shallow water bythitine genera. Calamopteryx is regarded as the genus that is most closely related to Microbrotula. As a result of the redefinition of Microbrotula, one of its previously assigned species, M. randalli, is placed in a new genus, Ematops, characterised by the head pore pattern, unique presence of scales partly covering the eye, number of precaudal vertebrae, number of pectoral and caudal fin rays and the otolith proportion.


Schwarzhans W.,Ahrensburger Weg 103 | Moller P.R.,Copenhagen University
Beagle | Year: 2011

After completion of the revision of the dinematichthyine fishes (Ophidiiformes: Bythitidae: Brosmophycinae) of the Indo-west Pacific based on more than 6500 specimens in 2008, extensive additional material was reviewed from the collections of the Western Australian Museum and the South African Institute of Aquatic Biodiversity. This material has not only led to a better definition of the species Brosmolus longicaudus but also to a recognition of the following new taxa: Didymothallus nudigena sp. nov. from northwestern Australia, Paradiancistrus christmasensis sp. nov. from Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), Nielsenichthys pullus gen. nov., sp. nov. from Nusa Penida, Indonesia, Majungaichthys agalegae sp. nov. from northern Madagascar and Agalega Islands and Mascarenichthys remotus sp. nov. from Rodrigues Island. The status of Alionematichthys sp. 2 in Møller and Schwarzhans (2008) is resolved and placed into A. crassiceps Møller and Schwarzhans, 2008, thereby extending the distribution of the species to northwestern Australia.


Nielsen J.G.,Universitetsparken 15 | Okamoto M.,Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries And Environment of Inland Sea | Schwarzhans W.,Ahrensburger Weg 103
Ichthyological Research | Year: 2013

A new bythitid fish, Timorichthys angustus, is described on the basis of a single specimen (52 mm in standard length, SL) collected from the East China Sea, Japan. The genus Timorichthys Nielsen and Schwarzhans 2011 was only known from the holotype of the type species Timorichthys disjunctus Nielsen and Schwarzhans 2011 caught in the Timor Sea. The new species differs from T. disjunctus in several characters, such as the pectoral fin peduncle being much longer than its width (vs. equal in T. disjunctus), precaudal vertebrae 22 (vs. 16), total vertebrae 62 (vs. 52), long rakers on the first gill arch 14 (vs. 6), horizontal eye diameter 3.1 % SL (vs. 1.3 % SL), interorbital width 0.8 % SL (vs. 3.3 % SL), posterior mandibular pore absent (vs. present), anterior infraorbital pores 1 (vs. 3), opercular spine not covered by skin (vs. covered by skin), otolith height to thickness 2.5 (vs. 1.8), and head and body light brown in alcohol (vs. dark brown). © 2013 The Ichthyological Society of Japan.


The fishes of the genus Hymenocephalus live over continental slope terrain, chiefly between 300 and 1000 m water depths, in all tropical oceans, except the eastern Pacific. They are characterized by an elongated light organ with two lenses, striations on jugular and thorax, and by an extraordinary development of sensory reception organs: strongly enlarged eyes, exceptionally large and specialized sagittal otoliths and extremely wide and deep head canals resembling caverns and housing the cephalic sensory organ for motion reception (lateral line system). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential that a detailed analysis of the head and otolith morphology can offer for distinguishing the various species and assessment of their interrelationships. About 500 specimens were investigated, representing all 22 nominal species of the genus Hymenocephalus, except for H. barbatulus (specimens of which could not be located), the two species of the related genus Hymenogadus and three of the four species of Spicomacrurus. Because of the delicate and thin nature of the head bones and head skin typical for the fishes of the genus Hymenocephalus and the deteriorating effects of formalin to the aragonitic otoliths, only a fraction of the studied specimens actually contributed useful data, although that fraction represented all species studied. Otoliths in particular and aspects of the cephalic canal system were found to contribute additional characters that help to verify the status of certain controversial species such as H. heterolepis, H. nascens and species within the H. striatissimus and H. grimaldii Groups. Hymenocephalus longiceps is revised to represent a junior synonym of H. longibarbis. Eight species groups are defined within the genus Hymenocephalus. Three new species are being described in the course of this review: H. iwamotoi from off northwestern Australia, H. sazonovi from the Sala y Gomez and Nazca Ridges, and H. punt from northern Somalia and the Gulf of Aden, now raising the count of valid species in the genus to a total of 24. The specializations of the sensory reception organs show a variety of developments with well-expressed phylogenetic polarities that are discussed in the context of their evolution and interrelationships. A well-documented case of polarity reversal of certain characters in the H. aterrimus Group is interpreted as a functional adaptation to migration of these fishes into a deeper water environment that favors different specializations of the sensory reception © 2014 Magnolia Press


Nakayama N.,Kochi University | Endo H.,Kochi University | Schwarzhans W.,Ahrensburger Weg 103 | Schwarzhans W.,Universitetsparken 15
Ichthyological Research | Year: 2015

Hymenocephalus yamasakiorum, a new species of grenadier fishes, is described from a single specimen collected from Tosa Bay off Aki, Kochi, Japan, at a depth of 320–400 m. The species is distinguished from its 26 known congeners in having the following combination of features: pelvic-fin rays nine; pectoral-fin rays i16–i17; first dorsal-fin rays II, 10; chin barbel 55 % of head length (HL), its tip extending beyond the hind margin of orbit when laid back; snout moderately high, not depressed, length 28 % HL; orbit diameter 33 % HL; interorbital width 24 % HL; gill rakers on first arch (outer/inner) 14/20, on second arch 20/19; pyloric caeca 15; dorsal half of posterior part of tail prominently blackish. © 2015, The Ichthyological Society of Japan.


Prokofiev A.M.,RAS Shirshov Institute of Oceanology | Schwarzhans W.,Ahrensburger Weg 103 | Schwarzhans W.,Universitetsparken 15
Cybium | Year: 2015

Since its first description by Gilbert and Cramer (1897) (originally as Melanostoma argyreum), Synagrops argyreus was considered to be endemic to Hawaii. New data from the southern Indian Ocean in the Madagascar Channel and the Coral and Tasman Seas reveal a considerable wider geographical distribution of the species, adding to the growing number of pseudoceanic species with a wide distribution pattern in the Indo-Pacific. © SFI.


Schwarzhans W.,Ahrensburger Weg 103 | Nielsen J.G.,Copenhagen University
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

Following the recent revision of Microbrotula (Schwarzhans & Nielsen, 2011), an additional nine specimens of the viviparous genus Microbrotula (Teleostei: Bythitidae), all caught in the Cenderawasih Bay, Irian Jaya, New Guinea, Indonesia, were made available to us. These specimens represent a new species described here as M. geraldalleni. It belongs to the group of species with 6 caudal and 14 pectoral fin rays and is closest to M. greenfieldi, differing in the higher dorsal and anal fin ray counts (68-73 and 61-65 vs. 62-70 and 58-61, respectively), the presence of 3 posterior mandibular pores (vs. none), 2-3 preopercular pores (vs. none), a connected squamation over the head including cheek, opercle and occiput (vs. 3 separated scale patches) and with a unique scale-less triangular window just above the opercle. Microbrotula geraldalleni may be endemic to the Cenderawasih Bay. Copyright © 2012. Magnolia Press.

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