Madīnat Sittah Uktūbar, Egypt
Madīnat Sittah Uktūbar, Egypt

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Elgemeie G.H.,Helwan University | Farag A.B.,Ahram Canadian University
Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids | Year: 2017

A first reported direct method for preparation of thymine thioglycoside analogs utilizing novel pyrimidine-2(1H)-thiones and α-bromoglucose or α-bromogalactose tetraacetate as starting components is described. The synthetic potential of the method is demonstrated. The evaluation of antiproliferative activity against HepG-2 cell lines (Liver carcinoma cell lines) shows that most of the compounds have high antitumor activities especially 6b, 6e, 11b, and 12b. Moreover, molecular modelings of these compounds reveal that they have high binding affinity through hydrogen bond interaction with the binding pocket of thymidylate synthase dihydrofolate reductase (TS-DHFR). © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Zafer M.M.,Ahram Canadian University | Amin M.,Cairo University | ElMahallawy H.,Cairo University | Ashour M.S.E.D.,MSA University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

This work reports the occurrence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) in metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Egypt for the first time, and the presence of more than one blaMBL gene in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. © 2014 The Authors.


Farouk F.,Ahram Canadian University | Farouk F.,American University in Cairo | Azzazy H.M.E.,American University in Cairo | Niessen W.M.A.,VU University Amsterdam
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2015

Residues of antibiotics (ABs) in the aquatic environment and in food of animal origin represent a major concern, as prolonged exposure to ABs is a serious health hazard, related to both the side effects of prolonged use and the risk of developing bacterial resistance to various ABs. Given the low levels of the AB residues in complex matrices, the development of sensitive analytical methods represents a major challenge. This is certainly true for the aminoglycoside ABs (AGs) which lack a chromophore and show poor chromatographic properties in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. This paper reviews the current state of the art in the determination of AGs. Attention is paid to extraction, sample clean-up, chromatographic separation, and detection of AGs in both environmental and food samples and in plasma and serum. A general workflow for the analysis of AGs is presented which takes into account the matrix and required level of information. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Zafer M.M.,Ahram Canadian University | Al-Agamy M.H.,King Saud University | Al-Agamy M.H.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt | El-Mahallawy H.A.,Cairo University | And 2 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial pathogen, commonly causing infections in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic relatedness of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates collected from 2 tertiary hospitals in Cairo, Egypt using Multi Locus sequence typing (MLST). Methods: Phenotypic and genotypic detection of metallo-beta-lactamase for forty eight non-duplicate carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were carried out. DNA sequencing and MLST were done. Results: The bla VIM-2 gene was highly prevalent (28/33 strains, 85%) among 33 MBL-positive P.aeruginosa isolates. MLST revealed eleven distinct Sequence Types (STs). A unique ST233 clone producing VIM-2 was documented by MLST in P.aeruginosa strains isolated from Cairo university hospitals. The high prevalence of VIM-2 producers was not due to the spread of a single clone. Conclusions: The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate that clones of VIM-2 positive in our hospitals are different from those reported from European studies. Prevalence of VIM-2 producers of the same clone was detected from surgical specimens whereas oncology related specimens were showing diverse clones. © Zafer et al.


Elshafei S.,Ahram Canadian University | Menshawi M.,Ahram Canadian University
Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering | Year: 2015

We present an approach that could be used systematically to model, design, and consequently construct, user interface software systems for software tools that are highly dependent on programming. We use BNF grammar like language to describe the cognitive model of the proposed system. In order to do that, user requirements are analyzed as hierarchical tasks. To appreciate the improvements in usability and other aspects of the proposed layer, the cognitive model of the conventional interface method is also presented and compared to the proposed interface scheme. The design of the proposed interface at the lexical, syntactic, and semantic levels are then given. Evaluations of the suitability of the approach as well as of the product interface were conducted. © 2015 IEEE.


Lotfy H.M.,Cairo University | Tawakkol S.M.,Helwan University | Fahmy N.M.,Ahram Canadian University | Shehata M.A.,Cairo University
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2014

A novel spectrophotometric technique was developed for the simultaneous determination of ternary mixtures, without prior separation steps. This technique was called successive spectrophotometric resolution technique. The technique was based on either the successive ratio subtraction or successive derivative subtraction. The mathematical explanation of the procedure was illustrated. In order to evaluate the applicability of the methods a model data as well as an experimental data were tested. The results from experimental data related to the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of lidocaine hydrochloride (LH), calcium dobesilate (CD) and dexamethasone acetate (DA); in the presence of hydroquinone (HQ), the degradation product of calcium dobesilate were discussed. The proposed drugs were determined at their maxima 202 nm, 305 nm, 239 nm and 225 nm for LH, CD, DA and HQ respectively; by successive ratio subtraction coupled with constant multiplication method to obtain the zero order absorption spectra, while by applying successive derivative subtraction they were determined at their first derivative spectra at 210 nm for LH, 320 nm or P292-320 for CD, 256 nm or P225-252 for DA and P 220-233 for HQ respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 2-20 μg/mL for both LH and DA, 6-50 μg/mL for CD, and 3-40 μg/mL for HQ. The proposed methods were checked using laboratory-prepared mixtures and were successfully applied for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulation containing the cited drugs with no interference from other dosage form additives. The proposed methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the official BP methods for LH, DA, and CD, and with the official USP method for HQ; using student t-test, F-test, and one way ANOVA, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision.© 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lotfy H.M.,Cairo University | Tawakkol S.M.,Helwan University | Fahmy N.M.,Ahram Canadian University | Shehata M.A.,Cairo University
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2015

Simultaneous determination of mixtures of lidocaine hydrochloride (LH), flucortolone pivalate (FCP), in presence of chlorquinaldol (CQ) without prior separation steps was applied using either successive or progressive resolution techniques. According to the concentration of CQ the extent of overlapping changed so it can be eliminated from the mixture to get the binary mixture of LH and FCP using ratio subtraction method for partially overlapped spectra or constant value via amplitude difference followed by ratio subtraction or constant center followed by spectrum subtraction spectrum subtraction for severely overlapped spectra. Successive ratio subtraction was coupled with extended ratio subtraction, constant multiplication, derivative subtraction coupled constant multiplication, and spectrum subtraction can be applied for the analysis of partially overlapped spectra. On the other hand severely overlapped spectra can be analyzed by constant center and the novel methods namely differential dual wavelength (D1 DWL) for CQ, ratio difference and differential derivative ratio (D1 DR) for FCP, while LH was determined by applying constant value via amplitude difference followed by successive ratio subtraction, and successive derivative subtraction. The spectra of the cited drugs can be resolved and their concentrations are determined progressively from the same ratio spectrum using amplitude modulation method. The specificity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures and were successfully applied for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations containing the cited drugs with no interference from additives. The proposed methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the official or reported methods; using student t-test, F-test, and one way ANOVA, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zayed A.A.-F.,Ahram Canadian University | Essam T.M.,Cairo University | Hashem A.-G.M.,Cairo University | El-Tayeb O.M.,Cairo University
Emerging Microbes and Infections | Year: 2015

Fluoroquinolone resistance is gradually acquired through several mechanisms. In particular, chromosomal mutations in the genes encoding topoisomerases II and IV and increased expression of the multidrug efflux pump AcrAB-TolC are the most common mechanisms. In this study, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols were designed for high-throughput sequencing of the quinolone resistance determining regions of topoisomerases genes (gyrA, parC and parE) and/or the expression regulation systems of multidrug efflux pump AcrAB (acrRAB, marRAB and soxSR). These protocols were applied to sequence samples from five subpopulations of 103 clinical Escherichia coli isolates. These subpopulations were classified according to their levofloxacin susceptibility pattern as follows: highly resistant (HR), resistant (R), intermediate (I), reduced susceptibility (RS) and susceptible (S). All HR isolates had mutations in the six genes surveyed, with two 'supermutator' isolates harboring 13 mutations in these six genes. Strong associations were observed between mutations in acrR and HR isolates, parE and R/HR isolates and parC and I/R/HR isolates, whereas surprisingly, gyrA mutations were common in RS/I/R/HR isolates. Further investigation revealed that strong associations were limited to the triple mutations gyrA-S83L/D87N/R237H and HR isolates and the double mutations S83L/D87N and I/R/HR isolates, whereas the single mutation S83L was common in RS/I/R/HR isolates. Interestingly, two novel mutations (gyrA-R237H and acrR-V29G) were located and found to strongly associate with HR isolates. To the best of our knowledge, the gyrA-R237H and acrR-V29G mutations have never been reported and require further investigation to determine their exact role in resistance or 'fitness' as defined by their ability to compensate for the organismal cost of gaining resistance. © 2015 SSCC. All rights reserved.


ElKamchouchi H.,Alexandria University | ElShafee A.,Ahram Canadian University
International Conference on Electronic Devices, Systems, and Applications | Year: 2012

This research aims to design and implement a cost effective but yet flexible, adaptable, and secure Home automation system. Paper presents design and prototype implementation of a basic home automation system based on SMS technology. The proposed system consists of two main components; the GSM modem, which is the communication interface between the home automation system and the user. GSM modem uses SMS technology to exchange data, and signaling between users and home automation system. The second module is the micro controller, which is the core of the home automation system, and acts as the bridge between the GSM network (the user) and sensors and actuators of home automation system. Sensors and actuators are directly connected to hardware micro controller through appropriate interface. System supports a wide range of home automation devices; power management components, security, multimedia applications, and telecommunication devices. System security based on user authentication of each SMS being exchange, as each SMS contains user name and password (beside comments). User can easily configure home automation system setting through RS232 protocol using a user friendly interface. © 2012 IEEE.


Three simple, selective, and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed and then validated for the analysis of Benazepril (BENZ) and Amlodipine (AML) in bulk powder and pharmaceutical dosage form. The first method is the absorption factor (AF) for zero order and amplitude factor (P-F) for first order spectrum, where both BENZ and AML can be measured from their resolved zero order spectra at 238 nm or from their first order spectra at 253 nm. The second method is the constant multiplication coupled with constant subtraction (CM-CS) for zero order and successive derivative subtraction-constant multiplication (SDS-CM) for first order spectrum, where both BENZ and AML can be measured from their resolved zero order spectra at 240 nm and 238 nm, respectively, or from their first order spectra at 214 nm and 253 nm for Benazepril and Amlodipine respectively. The third method is the novel constant multiplication coupled with derivative zero crossing (CM-DZC) which is a stability indicating assay method for determination of Benazepril and Amlodipine in presence of the main degradation product of Benazepril which is Benazeprilate (BENZT). The three methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 5-60 μg/mL for Benazepril and 5-30 for Amlodipine, with well accepted mean correlation coefficient for each analyte. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were well within the acceptable limits. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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