Zaria, Nigeria
Zaria, Nigeria

Ahmadu Bello University is the largest university in Nigeria and second largest in Africa, after Cairo University, Egypt. It is in Zaria. It was founded on October 4, 1962 as the University of Northern Nigeria.Ahmadu Bello University operates two main campuses: Samaru and Kongo. The Samaru campus houses the administrative offices, science, social-science, arts and languages, education, engineering, medical science agricultural science and research facilities. The Kongo campus hosts the Faculties of Law and Administration. The Faculty of Administration consists of Accounting, Business Administration, Local Government and Development Studies and Public Administration Departments. Additionally, the university is responsible for a variety of other institutions and programs at other locations.The university is named after the Sardauna of Sokoto, Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello, the first premier of Northern Nigeria.The university runs a wide variety of undergraduate and graduate programs . The university has a large medical program with its own A.B.U. Teaching Hospital, one of the largest hospitals in Nigeria. Wikipedia.

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.3.4-3 | Award Amount: 2.23M | Year: 2011

The APARET fellowship programme will catalyse independent research activities of graduates of Field Epidemiology Training Programmes (FETP) and Field Epidemiology Laboratory Training programmes (FELTP) in Africa. APARET fellows will be employed as research associates by African APARET partners for 2 years (salary provided by host institute). During the first year of their contract they will be embedded in the EU-supported APARET programme. A core part of the fellowship will be the application for a major research grant. The APARET programme will consist of: - Workshops: a two-week initiation workshop with face-to face contact between fellow and mentor and workshops on topics such as research funding, project management, ethical issues; a one-week proposal writing and project-planning workshop; a one-week final seminar, where fellows will present their result. - A mentoring programme linking each fellow with a local supervisor and an external mentor providing support for scientific and grant writing activities - Small research grants enabling the fellows to perform independent scientific activities at their host institutes. - Embedding the fellows in a network of African and European epidemiologists APARET can be credited towards a PhD degree of the respective university. EU-funding covers 3 successive cohorts of fellows. APARET will support the fellows in meeting the following objectives: I) Main objective: Prepare, write and submit a proposal for a major research grant. II) Additional objectives: 1. Plan, develop and conduct an epidemiological research project. 2. Perform epidemiological analyses 3. Submit a scientific manuscript to a peer-reviewed journal. 4. Critically review and provide feedback on a scientific paper. 5. Participate in the training of other epidemiologists. APARET supports well-trained epidemiologists in establishing a career in Africa.

Isah M.B.,Umaru Musa Yar'Adua University | Ibrahim M.A.,Ahmadu Bello University
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

Oxidative damage is one of the most important pathological consequences of malarial infections. It affects vital organs of the body manifesting in changes such as splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, endothelial and cognitive damages. The currently used antimalarials often leave traces of these damages after therapy, as evident in memory impairment after cerebral malaria. Hence, some research investigations have focused attention on the use of antioxidants, alone or in combination with antimalarials, as a viable therapeutic strategy aimed at alleviating plasmodium-induced oxidative stress and its associated complications. However, the practical application of this approach often yields conflicting outcomes because some antimalarials specifically act via induction of oxidative stress. This article critically reviews most of the studies conducted on the potential role of antioxidant therapy in malarial infections. The most frequently investigated antioxidants are vitamins C and E, N-acetylcystein, folate and desferroxamine. Some of the investigations measured the effects of direct administration of the antioxidants on the plasmodium parasites while others performed an adjunctive therapy with standard antimalarials. The therapeutic application of each of the antioxidants in malaria management depends on the targeted aspect of malarial pathology. It is hoped that this article will provide an informed basis for future research activities on the therapeutic role of antioxidants on malarial pathogenesis. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Quantum chemical parameters, namely energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital, energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, energy gap, dipole moment, total energy, total electronic energy, core-core repulsion, ionisation potential, cosmo area, cosmo volume and other quantum descriptors [calculated from PM6, PM3, AM1, RM1 and modified neglect of diatomic overlap (MNDO) Hamiltonians], have been used to predict the corrosion inhibition potential of asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine and glutamic acid. The results obtained indicate that the trend for the variation of the inhibition efficiencies of the compound is in the order: glutamine > asparagine > aspartic acid > glutamic acid. There is a strong agreement between some quantum chemical parameters and the experimental inhibition efficiencies. In order to establish the sites for electrophilic and nucleophilic attacks, condensed Fukui function, condensed softness and relative nucleophilicity/ electrophilicity were considered. The results reveal that the sites for nucleophilic attacks in aspartic acid and glutamine are at the nitrogen atom (N5) but at the carbon atom (C3) for asparagine and glutamic acid. The sites for electrophilic attacks are at the oxygen atom (O9, for aspartic acid), carbon atom (C6, for asparagine), oxygen atom (O10, for glutamic acid) and nitrogen atom (N9, for glutamine). © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Atawodi S.,Ahmadu Bello University
Infectious Agents and Cancer | Year: 2011

Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis - vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years. © 2011 Atawodi; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Singh J.,Ahmadu Bello University | Umar A.,Ahmadu Bello University
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2012

This paper studies the motion of an infinitesimal mass around seven equilibrium points in the framework of the elliptic restricted three-body problem under the assumption that the primary of the system is a non-luminous, oblate spheroid and the secondary is luminous. A practical application of this case could be the study of the dynamical evolution of dust particles in orbits around a binary system with a dark degenerate primary and a secondary stellar companion. Conditional stability of the motion around the triangular points exists for 0< μ< μ c , where μ is the mass ratio. The critical mass ratio value μ c depends on the combined effect of radiation pressure, oblateness, eccentricity, and the semimajor axis of the elliptic orbits; an increase in any of these parameters has destabilizing results on the orbits of the test particles. The overall effect is therefore that the size of the region of stability decreases when the value of these parameters increases. The collinear points and the out-of-plane equilibrium points are found to be unstable for any combination of the parameters considered here. Further, a numerical exploration computing the positions of the triangular points and the critical mass ratio of two binaries RXJ0450.1-5856 and Nova Cen 1969 (Cen X-4) is given. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Singh J.,Ahmadu Bello University
Astrophysics and Space Science | Year: 2012

This paper studies the motion of an infinitesimal body near the out-of-plane equilibrium points, L 6,7, in the perturbed restricted three-body problem. The problem is perturbed in the sense that the primaries of the system are oblate spheroids as well as sources of radiation and small perturbations are give to the Coriolis and centrifugal forces. It locates the positions and examines the stability of L 6,7 with a particular application to the binary system Struve 2398. It is observed that their positions are affected by the radiation, oblateness and a small perturbation in the centrifugal force, but is unaffected by that of the Coriolis force. They are also found to be unstable. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Hassan H.S.,Ahmadu Bello University
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines | Year: 2012

Crude saponin extracts of five medicinal plants used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, gout and haemorrhoids were screened for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test. These plants were the whole plant of Schwenkia americana Linn (WSA), the rhizomes of Asparagus africanus Lam (RAA), the leaves of Dichrostachys cinerea Linn (LDC), the stem bark of Ficus iteophylla Miq (BFI) and the leaves of Indigofera pulchra Willd (LIP). A modify traditional method of crude saponins extraction was used to give the following percentage yields: WSA-2.74%, RAA-3.59%, LDC-1.62%, BFI-0.81% and LIP-1.57% respectively. Thin-layer chromatography was used to identify the type of saponins present in the extracts. The acute toxicity study of the crude saponin extracts in mice gave the following intraperitoneal LD50: WSA-471.2mg/kg, RAA- 1264.9mg/kg, LDC-1264.9 mg/kg, BFI-118.3mg/kg and LIP-1264.9 mg/kg respectively. The anti-inflammatory study of the extracts showed statistically significant (P<0.05) decreases in the rat paw-oedema as compared to the control. The percentage inhibitions of the extracts after four hours were as follow: WSA-61%, RAA-55%, LDC-72%, BFI-66% and LIP-40% respectively. These values were found to be comparable to that of ketoprofen-63%. The study showed that the anti-inflammatory properties attributable to these plants may be due to their saponins contents.

Singh J.,Ahmadu Bello University
Astrophysics and Space Science | Year: 2013

This study explores the effects of small perturbations in the Coriolis and centrifugal forces, radiation pressures and triaxiality of the two stars (primaries) on the position and stability of an infinitesimal mass (third body) in the framework of the planar circular restricted three-body problem (R3BP). it is observed that the positions of the usual five (three collinear and two triangular) equilibrium points are affected by the radiation, triaxiality and a small perturbation in the centrifugal force, but are unaffected by that of the Coriolis force. The collinear points are found to remain unstable, while the triangular points are seen to be stable for 0<μ<μc and unstable for μc ≤ μ ≤ 1/2, where μc is the critical mass ratio influenced by the small perturbations in the Coriolis and centrifugal forces, radiation and triaxiality. It is also noticed that the former one and all the latter three posses stabilizing and destabilizing behavior respectively. Therefore, the overall effect is that the size of the region of stability decreases with increase in the values of the parameters involved. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

This paper investigates the nonlinear stability of the triangular equilibrium points under the influence of small perturbations in the Coriolis and centrifugal forces together with the effect of oblateness and radiation pressures of the primaries. It is found that the triangular points are stable for all mass ratios in the range of linear stability except for three mass ratios depending upon above perturbations, oblateness coefficients and mass reduction factors. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Over 80% of stroke deaths occur in low-income and middle-income regions of the world. Identification of predictors of mortality is vital so that prompt therapeutic measures could be instituted to improve outcome. Previous studies have identified factors such as stroke severity, stroke type, older age, impairment of consciousness and hyperglycaemia as predictors of mortality for acute stroke but mortality remain high among patients hospitalized for acute stroke. The study objective was to determine the association between admission serum albumin levels and short-term outcome following acute ischaemic stroke in Nigerians. Consecutive first-ever acute ischaemic stroke patients were prospectively enrolled between February 2009 and May 2010. Stroke severity at presentation was determined using National Institute of Heath Stroke Score (NIHSS). Admission serum chemistry including albumin, were measured. Patients were then followed up for 30 days and outcome measures applied at the end of the study were 30-day mortality and functional outcome using the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) and graded as favourable(MRS 0-3) or unfavourable(MRS 4-6). Relationship between serum albumin and stroke outcome was determined. 75 acute stroke cases were studied. Mean age was 57.68±12.4 years. Outcome was favourable in 48% while 30-day case fatality was 17.3%. The mean age (61.13 years) of those with poor outcome was significantly higher than those with favourable outcome. Mean serum albumin (3.03 g/dL) of those with favourable outcome was also significantly higher than (2.08 g/dL) of those with unfavourable outcome (p=0.0001). Patients that died had significantly lower serum albumin (1.66 g/dl) than survivors (p=0.0001).Receiver operating characteristics curve for optimal cut off point of serum albumin to predict survival or death within 30 days revealed area under the cure (AUC) of 0.870, p-value 0.0001, 95% C/I=0.759-0.982. Serum albumin of 1.55 g /dL has sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 61.5%. NIHSS and serum albumin were predictors of poor outcome using multiple regression. Low admission serum albumin was an independent determinant of poor outcome.

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