Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH-2007-3.5-2 | Award Amount: 3.31M | Year: 2009
Healthcare can be neither universal nor equitable if it is less accessible to some sections of society than it is to others. EquitAbles focus on activity limitations brings recent thinking on disability, public health and health policy together to provide data that is crucial to enable universal and equitable access to healthcare in resource poor settings. EquitAble is a four-year collaborative research programme comprised of both leading and upcoming researchers, from two European and four African countries. Each of the African partner countries represent distinct challenges in terms of equitable access to health care in contexts where a large proportion of the population has been displaced (Sudan); where the population is highly dispersed (Namibia); where chronic poverty and high disease burden compete for meagre resources (Malawi); and where, despite relative wealth, universal and equitable access to health care is yet to be attained (South Africa). Documentary analysis of international and country-level health policy will identify health policy aspirations and challenges; along with opportunities for alignment and harmonisation, between different stakeholders. Intensive qualitative interviews and case studies, along with behavioural observations will explore the experiences of healthcare users, non-users and providers, and feed into the development of a household survey instrument. The extensive quantitative household survey will allow us to test models of access to healthcare, taking into account how the relationship between activity limitations and healthcare access is mediated by, or interacts with, cultural, contextual and systems variables. These work packages will constitute a much needed evidence base for health policy and practice in resource poor areas. EquitAble also goes beyond the provision of information and addresses how to ensure that research evidence affects policy and practice; both within the EU and Africa.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.3.4-1 | Award Amount: 4.26M | Year: 2011
Multiple reports have documented the important deficit in human resources in health (HRH) in Africa. The causes are multiple and relate to a combination of underproduction, internal mal-distribution and inappropriate task allocation, working conditions and brain drain. The HURAPRIM-project will develop innovative interventions and policies and address the HRH crisis. The objectives of the projects are to analyze the actual situation of HRH in Africa, to understand the complexity of the causes for the actual shortages in primary health care, to test interventions, strategies and policies that may improve the situation and to maximise networking and synergies. In order to achieve these goals, the project will assess the scope of the deficit in human resources and analyse the process of recruitment, undergraduate and postgraduate training, professional retention and unemployment and this for a variety of primary health care workers. The known complexity of the problem will prevent us from applying a one size fits all-approach. Therefore, the project consortium brings together three experienced and committed European partners and five African partners, representing different parts of Africa and specific situations in HRH. The designed interventions will be tested out through case-studies in these partner countries. The interventions will target different levels (capacity building, recruitment and retention, task differentiation and cooperation with informal sector/traditional healers), will addresses (in various degrees of importance) aspects at the micro-, meso and macro-levels and will be designed with involvement of all stakeholders, political authorities, NGOs and especially the local population. The frame of reference for the analysis will look at relevance, equity, quality, efficiency, acceptability, sustainability, participation and feasibility. Acceptance by policy makers, in close cooperation with stakeholders and of the local communities will be a main focu
Abass E.,University of Marburg |
Abass E.,Ahfad University for Women |
Bollig N.,University of Marburg |
Reinhard K.,University of Marburg |
And 5 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013
Background: For effective control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in East Africa, new rapid diagnostic tests are required to replace current tests with low sensitivity. The aim of this study is to improve diagnosis of VL in East Africa by testing a new antigen from an autochthonous L. donovani strain in Sudan. Methodology and Principle Findings: We cloned, expressed and purified a novel recombinant protein antigen of L. donovani from Sudan, designated rKLO8, that contains putative conserved domains with significant similarity to the immunodominant kinesin proteins of Leishmania. rKLO8 exhibited 93% and 88% amino acid identity with cloned kinesin proteins of L. infantum (synonymous L. chagasi) (K39) and L. donovani (KE16), respectively. We evaluated the diagnostic efficiency of the recombinant protein in ELISA for specific detection of VL patients from Sudan. Data were compared with a rK39 ELISA and two commercial kits, the rK39 strip test and the direct agglutination test (DAT). Of 106 parasitologically confirmed VL sera, 104 (98.1%) were tested positive by rKLO8 as compared to 102 (96.2%) by rK39. Importantly, the patients' sera showed increased reactivity with rKLO8 than rK39. Specificity was 96.1% and 94.8% for rKLO8- and rK39 ELISAs, respectively. DAT showed 100% specificity and 94.3% sensitivity while rK39 strip test performed with 81.1% sensitivity and 98.7% specificity. Conclusion: The increased reactivity of Sudanese VL sera with the rKLO8 makes this antigen a potential candidate for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan. However, the suitability at the field level will depend on its performance in a rapid test format. © 2013 Abass et al.
Georget D.M.R.,University of East Anglia |
Elkhalifa A.E.O.,Ahfad University for Women |
Peter S.B.,University of East Anglia
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2012
Kafirin proteins were extracted from a Sudanese cultivar of sorghum (Feterita). The extracted materials were characterized by SDS PAGE. Under non-reducing conditions as germination was progressing from 0 to 72h, there was visually a decrease in β-kafirins whereas a small effect was observed on α-kafirins. The occurrence of interactions between tannins and kafirin might explain this behavior when compared to other cultivars. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the first change in weight between room temperature and 100°C was due to the loss of water. The protein extract started to degrade thereafter with the decomposition rate increasing with germination time. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) analysis showed that the secondary structure of kafirin was found to be mainly governed by α-helices with some β-sheets. Upon germination, there was a change in protein conformation, mainly an increase in α-helices. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that after extraction, kafirin proteins formed aggregated particles. This study is the first to show in the case of Feterita cultivar that upon germination, the physical properties of the kafirin proteins were significantly affected and relied on composition. This could shed some light on the effect of processing such as germination on sorghum kafirin proteins originated from Feterita. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Badri A.,Maastricht University |
Badri A.,Ahfad University for Women |
Crutzen R.,Maastricht University |
Van Den Borne H.W.,Maastricht University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012
Background: With the deaths of hundreds of thousands and the displacement of up to three million Darfuris, the increasingly complex and on-going war in Darfur has warranted the need to investigate war-related severity and current mental health levels amongst its civilian population. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between war-related exposures and assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms amongst a sample of Darfuri female university students at Ahfad University for Women (AUW) in Omdurman city. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study among a representative sample of Darfuri female university students at AUW (N = 123) was conducted in February 2010. Using an adapted version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), war-related exposures and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed. Means and standard deviations illustrated the experiential severity of war exposure dimensions and PTSD symptom sub-scales, while Pearson correlations tested for the strength of association between dimensions of war exposures and PTSD symptom sub-scales. Results: Approximately 42 % of the Darfuri participants reported being displaced and 54 % have experienced war-related traumatic exposures either as victims or as witnesses (M = 28, SD = 14.24, range 0 - 40 events). Also, there was a strong association between the experiential dimension of war-related trauma exposures and the full symptom of PTSD. Moreover, the refugee-specific self-perception of functioning sub-scale within the PTSD measurement scored a mean of 3.2 (SD = .56), well above the 2.0 cut-off. Conclusions: This study provides evidence for a relationship between traumatic war-related exposures and symptom rates of PTSD among AUW Darfuri female students. Findings are discussed in terms of AUW counseling service improvement. © 2012 Badri et al.
Abdalla F.M.,Ahfad University for Women |
Omar M.A.,University of Leeds |
Badr E.E.,Sudan Medical Specialization Board
Human Resources for Health | Year: 2016
Background: Medical diaspora options, including the engagement of expatriate physicians in development efforts within their home country, are being called for to reverse the effects of brain drain from developing countries. This paper presents the results of a study exploring the potential contributions for the Sudanese Medial Diaspora Options to the healthcare delivery system (HCDS) in Sudan, focusing on the options of temporal and permanent returns and the likely obstacles faced in their implementation. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using a mixed methods design including quantitative and qualitative approaches. For the quantitative approach, the study, which focused on the possible contribution of the diaspora to healthcare delivery in Sudan, was based on an online survey using random purposive and snowballing sampling techniques involving 153 Sudanese physicians working in Saudi Arabia and other Gulf States, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, and the United States of America. The qualitative approach involved in-depth interviews with returnee physicians and key informants in Sudan, focusing on the return experiences, the barriers for return, and the options to improve future contributions. Results: Despite contributions of the Sudanese medical diaspora being of a small scale considering the size of the phenomenon, as well as infrequent and not appropriately organized, their inputs to academia and the links built with overseas institutions and specialist clinical services were nevertheless remarkable. The main barrier to temporal return was inappropriate organization by the local counterparts, while those for permanent return of physicians were poor work environment, insufficient financial payment, unsecured accommodation, and offspring education. The study identified short-term return as a feasible option considering the country's current conditions. Proper coordination mechanisms for short-term returns and facilitation of permanent return through stakeholders' collaboration were proposed to improve diaspora contributions. Conclusions: The potentials of Sudanese medial diaspora contributions to the HCDS in Sudan are promising. Short-term contributions were observed as the best option for the current country situation. Creation of a coordinating body from within the healthcare sector in Sudan to effectively coordinate diaspora contributions is recommended. © 2016 Abdalla et al.
Elkhalifa A.E.O.,Saarland University |
Elkhalifa A.E.O.,Ahfad University for Women |
Bernhardt R.,Saarland University
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013
A Sudanese sorghum cultivar (Fetarita) was germinated for 3 days. Stability and clarity of sorghum pastes, freeze-thaw stability, gel consistency, and swelling power were measured every 24 h. There is no substantial difference in stability and clarity between flour samples from germinated and ungerminated sorghum, but a different behavior was observed between samples stored at room temperature and at 4 °C. Cooked paste derived from germinated sorghum flour presented higher syneresis than that derived from ungerminated sorghum flour over the first three cycles but when the cycle number increased, both flours showed zero syneresis value. For the gel consistency the flours derived from germinated sorghum produced thinnest gels. The neutral and acid gel consistency increased when the germination time increased. Germination had not much effect on the swelling power of sorghum flour. © 2011 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).
Makki E.K.,Ahfad University for Women |
Musa E.O.M.,Ahfad University for Women
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2011
Draught animal technology (DAT) can potentially play a central role in agriculture transformation for traditional farmers. This study surveyed the state of DAT in En-Nhoud area, North Kordofan State, Sudan in an attempt to have a clear view of the changes brought about by introducing the technology. The study followed the cross-sectional survey design. Farmers were selected from ten clusters (villages) and data were collected using questionnaires and face to face interviews with farmers in addition to group discussions with them and the different actors in the field. The results showed that farmers appreciate the role played by DAT, but they highlighted the need for further capacity building and technical backup. Harnessing issues are not well understood and applied by the farmers. The different actors involved in DAT in the area lack networking and coordination, and this reflected on the many problems and constraints faced by the farmers. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Makki E.K.,Ahfad University for Women
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014
Little quantitative information is available on animal power in the Nile Valley in Sudan, despite that it is being used in the area for centuries and playing an important role in agriculture in the present day. A survey was conducted to assess draught oxenmanagement and its association with field capacity and efficiency at the farm level and to identify potential areas for intervention. A sample of 50 farmers was selected for this purpose using the systematic random sampling technique. The main management parameters discussed were animal health, feeding, housing, work strategy and care for yoke and plough. The results showed that most of the farmers poorly manage their animals, and this was reflected in low working speeds and field efficiencies. The main dimensions of poor management were in veterinary care (78 % did not take their animals to the veterinary centre), feeding (66 % feed their animals shortly before work) and care for yoke (80 % did not follow daily care measures for their yokes) and plough (74 % did not follow plough care measure before and after work). Low working speeds (0.90-2.0 km/h) were recorded by the majority of the farmers (64 %). The majority of the farmers (70 %) recorded field capacities between 0.06 and 0.10 ha/h, while all of them worked at high field efficiencies of >86 %. The only parameter that significantly affected field capacity was the yoke-related wounds (p =0.019). Extension advice and capacity building in husbandry and working practices were identified as principal entry points for intervention. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.
Amin M.,Ahfad University for Women |
Abubaker H.,Ahfad University for Women
Journal of Biosocial Science | Year: 2016
This paper analyses the changing patterns of infection with Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in the Gezira Irrigation Scheme, Sudan. Taking a historical perspective, it shows the way in which factors such as ecology, biology, social and economic variables and politics have shaped patterns of infection, and how different kinds of strategies have been developed to control schistosomal infection over time. Wider political and economic issues at both national and international levels have shaped these strategies, influencing the prevalence and intensity of schistosomal infection at a local level. By highlighting the inter-play between the above-mentioned factors, the article reflects on the wisdom of prioritizing community-directed mass drug administration for the control of schistosomiasis in Gezira and elsewhere. The review demonstrates that not all efforts to control schistosomiasis are sustainable. A comprehensive control strategy involving political commitment, community participation and socioeconomic development is important for sustainable control of schistosomal infection. Copyright © Cambridge University Press, 2016