Persynaki A.,University of Geneva |
Karras S.,AHEPA Hospital |
Pichard C.,University of Geneva
Nutrition | Year: 2017
Periodic fasting, under a religious aspect, has been adopted by humans for centuries as a crucial pathway of spiritual purification. Caloric restriction, with or without exclusion of certain types of food, is often a key component. Fasting varies significantly among different populations according to cultural habits and local climate conditions. Religious fasting in terms of patterns (continuous versus intermittent) and duration can vary from 1 to 200 d; thus, the positive and negative impact on health can be considerable. Advantages of religious fasting are claimed by many but have been explored mainly by a limited number of studies conducted in Buddhist, Christian, or Muslim populations. These trials indicate that religious fasting has beneficial effects on body weight and glycemia, cardiometabolic risk markers, and oxidative stress parameters. Animals exposed to a diet mimicking fasting have demonstrated weight loss as well as lowered plasma levels of glucose, triacylglycerols, and insulin growth factor-1, although lean body mass remained stable. Diabetic mice on repeated intermittent fasting had less insulin resistance that mice fed ad libitum. The long-term significance of such changes on global health remains to be explored. This review summarizes the data available with regard to benefits of fasting followed for religious reasons on human health, body anthropometry, and cardio-metabolic risk markers; aims to bridge the current knowledge gap on available evidence and suggests considerations for the future research agenda. Future studies should explore every type of religious fasting, as well as their consequences in subpopulations such as children, pregnant women, and the elderly, or patients with chronic metabolic diseases. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Tzotzas T.,St Lukes Hospital |
Karras S.N.,AHEPA Hospital |
Katsiki N.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Current Vascular Pharmacology | Year: 2017
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in females and is often associated with a number of cardiometabolic disorders such as central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a gut hormone secreted after a meal, enhances glucosestimulated insulin secretion and additionally suppresses appetite and gastric motility. Most studies found impaired GLP-1 kinetics in obese individuals, whereas small studies in PCOS reported reduced, normal or even elevated GLP-1 levels. Apart from their efficacy in patients with T2DM, some GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) have been successfully tested in terms of both efficiency and safety in obese individuals without diabetes and liraglutide 3 mg once daily has been approved as an antiobesity drug in the USA and the European Union. Recently, some small trials of short duration using GLP-1 RAs as monotherapy or combined with metformin in obese PCOS women showed positive results regarding weight reduction and a decrease in testosterone levels but without significant effects on insulin levels, insulin sensitivity and menstrual patterns. Longer term studies with more patients and higher doses of liraglutide (as this drug is already approved for obese individuals) are required to determine the precise indications of GLP-1 RAs in PCOS and to evaluate safety issues. © 2017 Bentham Science Publishers.
Bouziana S.,AHEPA Hospital |
Tziomalos K.,AHEPA Hospital |
Goulas A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki |
Hatzitolios A.I.,AHEPA Hospital
International Journal of Stroke | Year: 2016
Background: Adiponectin, leptin, and resistin are the most well-studied adipokines and play important roles in the regulation of glucose metabolism, subclinical inflammation, and cardiovascular homeostasis. Accordingly, measurement of adipokine levels might be useful in cardiovascular risk stratification. Moreover, the study of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of genes that encode these adipokines might also represent a valuable predictive tool in cardiovascular disease prevention strategies. Aims: To summarize the biologic role of the adipokines adiponectin, leptin, and resistin and the prognostic value of their serum levels regarding the occurrence and outcome of ischemic stroke. We also discuss the relationship of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the adiponectin, leptin genes, and the -420C > G polymorphism of resistin gene with stroke risk. Summary of review: Several studies in the general population evaluated the association between these adipokines and stroke risk, yielding conflicting results. There are more limited data regarding the effect of these adipokines on stroke severity and outcome. A small number of studies also assessed the predictive role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the adiponectin, leptin, and resistin genes regarding stroke risk, but the findings were also controversial. Conclusions: It is unclear whether adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels or the single-nucleotide polymorphisms of their encoding genes are independently associated with stroke risk. However, given the role of these adipokines in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, larger prospective studies, both in the general population and in patients with a history of stroke, are needed to determine whether the measurement of serum levels of these adipokines or the evaluation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in their encoding genes could improve stroke risk prediction. If this relationship is proven, therapeutic interventions targeting adipokine levels might represent a novel approach to reduce stroke-related mortality and disability. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.
Bakris G.L.,University of Chicago |
Sarafidis P.A.,AHEPA Hospital |
Weir M.R.,University of Maryland Baltimore County |
Dahlof B.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital |
And 8 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2010
Background: The Avoiding Cardiovascular Events through Combination Therapy in Patients Living with Systolic Hypertension (ACCOMPLISH) trial showed that initial antihypertensive therapy with benazepril plus amlodipine was superior to benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We assessed the effects of these drug combinations on progression of chronic kidney disease. Methods: ACCOMPLISH was a double-blind, randomised trial undertaken in five countries (USA, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland). 11 506 patients with hypertension who were at high risk for cardiovascular events were randomly assigned via a central, telephone-based interactive voice response system in a 1:1 ratio to receive benazepril (20 mg) plus amlodipine (5 mg; n=5744) or benazepril (20 mg) plus hydrochlorothiazide (12·5 mg; n=5762), orally once daily. Drug doses were force-titrated for patients to attain recommended blood pressure goals. Progression of chronic kidney disease, a prespecified endpoint, was defined as doubling of serum creatinine concentration or end-stage renal disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate <15 mL/min/1·73 m2 or need for dialysis). Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00170950. Findings: The trial was terminated early (mean follow-up 2·9 years [SD 0·4]) because of superior efficacy of benazepril plus amlodipine compared with benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide. At trial completion, vital status was not known for 143 (1%) patients who were lost to follow-up (benazepril plus amlodipine, n=70; benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide, n=73). All randomised patients were included in the ITT analysis. There were 113 (2·0%) events of chronic kidney disease progression in the benazepril plus amlodipine group compared with 215 (3·7%) in the benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide group (HR 0·52, 0·41-0·65, p<0·0001). The most frequent adverse event in patients with chronic kidney disease was peripheral oedema (benazepril plus amlodipine, 189 of 561, 33·7%; benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide, 85 of 532, 16·0%). In patients with chronic kidney disease, angio-oedema was more frequent in the benazepril plus amlodipine group than in the benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide group. In patients without chronic kidney disease, dizziness, hypokalaemia, and hypotension were more frequent in the benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide group than in the benazepril plus amlodipine group. Interpretation: Initial antihypertensive treatment with benazepril plus amlodipine should be considered in preference to benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide since it slows progression of nephropathy to a greater extent. Funding: Novartis. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kouparanis A.,AHEPA Hospital |
Bozikas A.,AHEPA Hospital |
Spilioti M.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki |
Tziomalos K.,AHEPA Hospital
Brain Injury | Year: 2015
Background: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare life-threatening disorder resulting from treatment with neuroleptic agents and other drugs that act as dopamine antagonists. NMS most often occurs shortly after the initiation, dose increase or withdrawal of the offending agent, but can rarely occur after long-term treatment at stable doses. Immediate discontinuation of the causative agent (or re-Administration if the cause is the withdrawal of neuroleptic therapy) along with supportive therapy to maintain cardiorespiratory stability and to reduce fever are the cornerstone of the management of NMS. Additional 'specific' treatments include dantrolene, bromocriptine and amantadine, but their role in the management of NMS is controversial. Case study: This study reports the case of NMS associated with long-term treatment with olanzapine at a stable dose. Administration of dantrolene was well-tolerated and resulted in prompt resolution of NMS symptoms. © 2015 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.
Georgianos P.I.,AHEPA Hospital |
Sarafidis P.A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki |
Sinha A.D.,Indiana University |
Agarwal R.,Indiana University
American Journal of Nephrology | Year: 2015
Background: Maintenance hemodialysis is typically scheduled thrice weekly due to simple logistic reasons; thus, the vast majority of hemodialysis patients receive renal replacement therapy for two shorter 2-day intervals and a longer 3-day interval. As compared to the 2-day interval, we review the ill effects of the longer 3-day interdialytic interval in this report. Summary: Large-scale observational studies show that both cardiovascular-related hospital admissions and mortality occur more frequently on the day following the long interdialytic interval than on any other day of the week. Although the reasons for excess mortality are obscure, several pathophysiologic mechanisms may be involved, such as a greater magnitude of change during the long interdialytic interval in the following parameters: volume status, electrolyte and acid-base status, arterial wall and left ventricle mechanics. These data raise the need for re-examining the issue of timing and frequency of prescribed dialysis regimens in an attempt to improve patient outcomes. Although enhanced-frequency and/or extended-time dialysis schedules may mitigate the risks of the long interdialytic interval, the benefit of such dialytic modalities on survival is not yet proven. Key Message: This article summarizes currently available epidemiologic and pathophysiologic evidence on the adverse effects related to the long interdialytic interval of thrice-weekly hemodialysis and discusses the need to research further alternative dialysis practices that could mitigate these risks. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Pana Z.D.,AHEPA Hospital |
Roilides E.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2011
One of the most well-known drug interactions in pediatric oncology concerns the co-administration of itraconazole, an antifungal triazole, and vincristine, an antileukemic agent, which seems to enhance the risk of neurotoxicity of the latter, mediated through the cytochrome CYP450 enzyme system. The aim of this article is to review the metabolism of these two drugs, to analyze the published cases with severe triazole-enhanced vincristine neurotoxicity, to discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms of this adverse effect, and to contribute in understanding the differences in triazole-vincristine interaction severity. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Mandalos A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki |
Anastasopoulos E.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki |
Makris L.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki |
Dervenis N.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Glaucoma | Year: 2013
Purpose: To evaluate the inter-examiner reproducibility of Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) parameters in healthy subjects using the waveform score (WS) for quality control of acquisition. Patients and Methods: Fifteen healthy subjects had their intraocular pressure (IOP) measured with ORA by 2 masked examiners. An acquisition protocol that aimed at obtaining 4 reliable measurements in each eye with WS≥6 and with as few repeated measurements as possible was employed, whereas a maximum of 8 measurements per eye was allowed. Additional good quality criteria included symmetrical force-in and force-out applanation signal peaks on the ORA waveform and few or no distortions of the applanation signal curve. Only the right eyes were included in the analysis. Examiners were trained but not experienced. The inter-examiner reproducibility of ORA parameters was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Mean values of the best 4 measurements were considered in analysis. Results: ICC including the best 4 measurements per eye was high for all ORA parameters. Specifically, ICC for Goldmann- correlated IOP was 0.961, for corneal-compensated IOP was 0.962, for corneal resistance factor was 0.987, and for corneal hysteresis was 0.988. Similar reproducibility was found when only the 3 best measurements per eye were included in the analysis. Conclusions: The protocol for IOP measurement with ORA using the WS ≥ 6 as quality index achieved high inter-examiner reproducibility for all ORA parameters. High reproducibility was obtained even by inexperienced examiners when considering the mean of the best 3 measurements per eye. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Sarafidis P.A.,AHEPA Hospital |
Stafylas P.C.,AHEPA Hospital |
Georgianos P.I.,AHEPA Hospital |
Saratzis A.N.,AHEPA Hospital |
Lasaridis A.N.,AHEPA Hospital
American Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2010
Background: Because of the major clinical and economic burden of diabetic nephropathy, new therapeutic tools to delay its progression are needed. Recent studies suggest that thiazolidinediones have renal benefits. We aimed to evaluate the effect of thiazolidinediones on urinary albumin and protein excretion in patients with diabetes mellitus. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis by searching MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases (1991 to September 2009). Setting & Population: Patients with diabetes mellitus. Selection Criteria for Studies: Randomized controlled trials. Intervention: Thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) compared with placebo or other antidiabetic agents. Outcomes: Weighted (WMDs) and standardized mean differences (SMDs) for changes in urine albumin or protein excretion between the thiazolidinedione and control groups. Results: Of 171 originally identified articles, 15 studies (5 with rosiglitazone and 10 with pioglitazone) involving 2,860 patients were included in the analysis. In participants with baseline normo- or microalbuminuria, the WMD of proportional changes between the thiazolidinedione and control groups in urinary albumin excretion measured using time-specified collections was -64.8% (95% CI, -75.6 to -53.9) and the WMD of changes in albumin-creatinine ratio was -24.8% (95% CI, -39.6 to -10.0). Overall, in participants with normo- and microalbuminuria, thiazolidinedione treatment was associated with a significant decrease in urinary albumin excretion (SMD, -0.6 units of standard deviation [SD]; 95% CI, -0.8 to -0.4). Similarly, thiazolidinediones were associated with a significant decrease in urinary protein excretion in patients with proteinuria (SMD, -1.1 units of SD; 95% CI, -1.8 to -0.4). Limitations: Significant heterogeneity across included studies in several subgroup analyses; patient-level data not available. Conclusions: Treatment with thiazolidinediones significantly decreases urinary albumin and protein excretion in patients with diabetes. This finding calls for clinical trials with hard renal outcomes to elucidate the potential benefits of thiazolidinediones on diabetic nephropathy. © 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc.
Athyros V.G.,Hippokration Hospital |
Tziomalos K.,AHEPA Hospital |
Katsiki N.,Hippokration Hospital |
Doumas M.,Hippokration Hospital |
And 2 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be an independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. However, simple steatosis has a benign clinical course without excess mortality. In contrast, the advanced form of NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with liver fibrosis increases mortality by approximately 70%, due to an increase in CVD mortality by approximately 300%. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be caused by NAFLD/NASH and it substantially increases CVD risk, especially in the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, CKD may trigger NAFLD/NASH deterioration in a vicious cycle. NAFLD/NASH is also related to increased arterial stiffness (AS), an independent CVD risk factor that further raises CVD risk. Diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis (mainly by simple non-invasive tests), CKD, and increased AS should be made early in the course of NAFLD and treated appropriately. Lifestyle measures and statin treatment may help resolve NAFLD/NASH and beneficially affect the CVD risk factors mentionedabove. © 2015 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.