Agtech Products Inc.

Waukesha, WI, United States

Agtech Products Inc.

Waukesha, WI, United States
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Li G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Li G.,Northeast Agricultural University | Lillehoj H.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lee K.W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 8 more authors.
Avian Pathology | Year: 2010

Gangrenous dermatitis (GD) is an emerging disease of increasing economic importance in poultry resulting from infection by Clostridium septicum and Clostridium perfringens type A. Lack of a reproducible disease model has been a major obstacle in understanding the immunopathology of GD. To gain better understanding of host-pathogen interactions in GD infection, we evaluated various immune parameters in two groups of birds from a recent commercial outbreak of GD, the first showing typical disease signs and pathological lesions (GD-like birds) and the second lacking clinical signs (GD-free birds). Our results revealed that GD-like birds showed: reduced T-cell and B-cell mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferation; higher levels of serum nitric oxide and α-1-acid glycoprotein; greater numbers of K55+, K1+, CD8+, and MHC class II+ intradermal lymphocytes, and increased K55+, K1+, CD8+, TCR1+, TCR2+, Bu1+, and MHC class II+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes; and increased levels of mRNAs encoding proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in skin compared with GD-free chickens. These results provide the first evidence of altered systemic and local (skin and intestine) immune responses in GD pathogenesis in chickens. © 2010 Houghton Trust Ltd.

Li G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Li G.,Northeast Agricultural University | Lillehoj H.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lee K.W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 9 more authors.
Avian Pathology | Year: 2010

The present report describes an outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis (GD) infection in a commercial poultry farm in Delaware involving 34-day-old broiler chickens. In addition to obvious clinical signs, some GD-affected broilers also showed severe fibrino-necrotic enteritis and large numbers of Gram-positive rods in the necrotic tissue. Histopathological findings included haemorrhage, degeneration and necrosis of parenchymatous cells, especially of skin, muscle, and intestine. Immunofluorescence staining revealed Clostridium-like bacilli in the skin and the intestine. Both Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium septicum genomic sequences were identified by polymerase chain reaction in bacterial cultures isolated from the skin, muscle, and intestine, and in the frozen tissues from the GD-affected birds. Serological analysis demonstrated that both affected and clinically healthy birds from the same house had high serum antibody titres against C. perfringens, C. septicum, Eimeria, chick anaemia virus, and infectious bursal disease virus. These results are discussed in the context of the relationship between the different Clostridium spp. and the pathogenesis of GD. © 2010 Houghton Trust Ltd.

Yoon S.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lawrence K.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Line J.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Siragusa G.R.,Agtech Products Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Sensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety | Year: 2010

The presence of Campylobacter in foods of animal origin is the leading cause of bacterially induced human gastroenteritis. Isolation and detection of Campylobacter in foods via direct plating involves lengthy laboratory procedures including enrichments and microaerobic incubations, which take several days to a week. The incubation time for growing Campylobacter colonies in agar media usually takes 24-48 h. Oftentimes the problem is the difficulty of visually differentiating Campylobacter colonies from non-Campylobacter contaminants that frequently grow together with Campylobacter on many existing agars. In this study, a new screening technique using non-destructive and non-contact hyperspectral imaging was developed to detect Campylobacter colonies in Petri dishes. A reflectance spectral library of Campylobacter and non-Campylobacter contaminants was constructed for characterization of absorption features in wavelengths from 400 to 900 nm and for developing classification methods. Blood agar and Campy-Cefex agar were used as culture media. The study found that blood agar was the better culture medium than Campy-Cefex agar in terms of Campylobacter detection accuracy. Classification algorithms including single-band thresholding, band-ratio thresholding and spectral feature fitting were developed for detection of Campylobacter colonies as early as 24 h of incubation time. A band ratio algorithm using two bands at 426 and 458 nm chosen from continuum-removed spectra of the blood agar bacterial cultures achieved 97-99% of detection accuracy. This research has profound implications for early detection of Campylobacter colonies with high accuracy. Also, the developed hyperspectral reflectance imaging protocol is applicable to other pathogen detection studies. © 2010 US Government.

Davis E.,Agtech Products Inc. | Rehberger J.,Agtech Products Inc. | King M.,Agtech Products Inc. | Brown D.C.,University of Arkansas | And 2 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

Weaning is a critical developmental event in the young pig as it relates to the establishment of the commensal microbiota and immunological development. Furthermore farm production systems can have dramatic impacts on the development of these events and their continued progression later in the production cycle. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and flow cytometry analyses were performed to investigate the microbial community and associated immune system development between pigs weaned to an on-site conventional (CONV) and a segregated early weaning (SEW) facility. Ordination methods were performed to determine the relationship of specific TRF peaks and immune measurements to each management system. Jejunal intraepithelial (IEL) activated and γδ lymphocyte populations were positively associated with CONV pigs, whereas activated CD8+ T cells and T cells with memory phenotypes in IEL were positively associated with SEW pigs. TRFLP analysis indicated peaks putatively containing Lactobacillus sp. and Pediococcus sp. whose presence in the gastrointestinal tract was positively correlated to SEW pigs post-weaning. TRF peak B100 was positively correlated to CD8+ and memory T cell phenotypes in the peripheral blood and jejunal IEL compartment, and negatively correlated to CD3+ T cells in blood. Peaks B262 and B269 were positively correlated to activated and γδ T cell populations in IEL and blood, and negatively correlated to T cells with memory phenotypes in IEL. TRF peak H341 was positively correlated to memory T cell phenotypes in the blood and activated leukocytes in IEL, and negatively correlated to γδ T cell populations. These data demonstrate divergent development of specific members of the microbial community and their relationship to immune development between swine management systems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Kim D.K.,Animal and Natural Resources Institute | Lillehoj H.S.,Animal and Natural Resources Institute | Lee K.W.,Animal and Natural Resources Institute | Jang S.I.,Animal and Natural Resources Institute | And 4 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2012

Gangrenous dermatitis (GD) is a disease of poultry characterized by necrosis of the skin and severe cellulitis of the subcutaneous tissues caused by infection with Clostridium septicum (CS) and/or Clostridium perfringens (CP) type A. While GD causes significant morbidity, mortality, and economic loss to the poultry industry, the fundamental mechanisms underlying this host-pathogen interaction are relatively unknown. This study used comparative global gene expression microarray analysis of GD-affected and clinically healthy chickens from a recent GD outbreak to glean insights into the molecular and cellular changes associated with this disease process. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed extensive muscle damage and prominent leukocyte infiltration in the skin of GD-affected birds but not in healthy controls. The levels of mRNAs in the skin and underlying muscle corresponding to 952 microarray elements were altered in GD-afflicted birds compared with healthy controls, with 468 being increased and 484 decreased. From these, a subset of 386 genes was identified and used for biologic function and pathway analyses. The biologic functions that were most significantly associated with the differentially expressed genes were "inflammatory response" and "cellular growth and proliferation" classified under the categories of "disease and disorders" and "molecular and cellular functions," respectively. The biologic pathway that was most significantly associated with the differentially expressed genes was the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated oxidative stress pathway. Finally, in vitro infection of chicken macrophages with CS or CP modified the levels of mRNAs encoding interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40, tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15 (downregulated), IL-8, and IL-10 (upregulated), thus confirming the suppressive effect of GD on the chicken immune system. © American Association of Avian Pathologists 2012.

Agtech Products Inc. | Date: 2011-06-22

Lactobacillus strains that have a genetic Profile I based on Apa I, Not I, and Xba I digests are provided. Preferably, the strains decrease level of at least one of coliforms and E.coli within the gastrointestinal tract of an animal. A direct-fed microbial that includes the strain is additionally provided. A method of feeding an animal the strain and a method of forming a direct fed microbial that includes the strain is also provided.

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