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Rapotín, Czech Republic

Bradova M.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Bradova M.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Tejnecky V.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Boruvka L.,Czech University of Life Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Aluminium (Al) speciation is a characteristic that can be used as a tool for describing the soil acidification process. The question that was answered is how tree species (beech vs spruce) and type of soil horizon affect Al speciation. Our hypotesis is that spruce and beech forest vegetation are able to modify the chemical characteristics of organic horizon, hence the content of Al species. Moreover, these characteristics are seasonally dependent. To answer these questions, a detailed chromatographic speciation of Al in forest soils under contrasting tree species was performed. The Jizera Mountains area (Czech Republic) was chosen as a representative mountainous soil ecosystem. A basic forestry survey was performed on the investigated area. Soil and precipitation samples (throughfall, stemflow) were collected under both beech and spruce stands at monthly intervals from April to November during the years 2008–2011. Total aluminium content and Al speciation, pH, and dissolved organic carbon were determined in aqueous soil extracts and in precipitation samples. We found that the most important factors affecting the chemistry of soils, hence content of the Al species, are soil horizons and vegetation cover. pH strongly affects the amount of Al species under both forests. Fermentation (F) and humified (H) organic horizons contain a higher content of water extractable Al and Al3+ compared to organo-mineral (A) and mineral horizons (B). With increasing soil profile depth, the amount of water extractable Al, Al3+ and moisture decreases. The prevailing water-extractable species of Al in all studied soils and profiles under both spruce and beech forests were organically bound monovalent Al species. Distinct seasonal variations in organic and mineral soil horizons were found under both spruce and beech forests. Maximum concentrations of water-extractable Al and Al3+ were determined in the summer, and the lowest in spring. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Vyletelova M.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Vyletelova M.,R.O.S.A.
Czech Journal of Food Sciences | Year: 2010

The survival of Mycoplasma bovis in milk samples was investigated at three storage temperatures (5°C, -30°C and -80°C) during 5 weeks. For the storage temperatures -30°C and -80°C, the respective samples were prepared weekly and those for culture by repeated defrosting. At 5°C the total number of M. bovis CFU/ml decreased from the initial of 1.13 x 10 7 CFU/ml to the final of 3.92 x 106 CFU/ml. The development in the frozen samples prepared for each week was as follow: (1) at -30°C - from the initial of 1.13 × 107 CFU/ml to 5.69 × 106 CFU/ml; (2) at -80°C - from the initial of 1.13 × 107 CFU/ml to 9.75 × 106 CFU/ml. The decrease in M. bovis colony count was more evident in the samples that were repeatedly defrosted: (1) at -30°C - the initial of 1.13 × 10 7 CFU/ml to the final of 2.18 x 106 CFU/ml; (2) at -80°C - the initial and final values were 1.13 x 10 7 CFU/ml and 7.89 × 106 CFU/ml, respectively. Source

Karabcova H.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Pospisilova L.,Mendel University in Brno | Fiala K.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Skarpa P.,Mendel University in Brno | Bjelkova M.,Agritec Plant Research Ltd
Soil and Water Research | Year: 2015

The effect of different kinds of organic matter inputs on elemental composition, content, and quality of humic substances was studied on permanent grassland during 2008-2013. The experiment included two organic fertilizer types - compost and slurry, both with the range of stocking rates 0.9, 1.4, and 2.0 livestock units (LU)/ha (corresponding to 54, 84, and 120 kg N/ha, respectively), and control without any fertilizer. The soil was sandy-loam, of Cambisol type, with semi natural permanent grassland. Labile forms and total contents of selected trace elements (Co, Cu, Zn, Cd) and macroelements (Ca, Mg, K, P, and N) were measured. Soil organic matter parameters such as total organic carbon (Cox), humic substances (HS), humic acid (HA), fluvic acid (FA), and labile carbon forms (hot-water extractable carbon (Chws), cold water extractable carbon (Ccws)) were determined. Results showed that the greatest content of P, Ca, Mg, and N in the soil was detected by the CO 2.0 treatment. Furthermore, the positive effect of compost on Cox, Chws, HA, FA, HS, N and macronutrients was observed. The elemental analysis of humic acids showed lower carbon content and higher oxygen content in HA molecule, which indicated young humic acids, with a lower condensation degree. The content and quality of humic substances strongly influenced the total and labile trace elements content in the soil. Additionally, hot water soluble carbon significantly correlated with plant available forms of Zn, Cu, and Cd. Source

Stybnarova M.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Micova P.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Karabcova H.,Research Institute for Cattle Breeding Ltd. | Svozilova M.,Research Institute for Cattle Breeding Ltd.
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2013

The objective of this research was to investigate occurrence of common couch grass (Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski) under different grassland management by means of a small-plot trial. The trial was managed during 2003-2011 with four levels of utilisation: intensive (4 cuts per year, 1 st cut on 15 May), medium intensive (3 cuts per year, 1st cut on 30 May), low intensive (2 cuts per year, 1st cut on 15 June), and extensive (2 cuts per year, 1st cut on 30 June). Four rates of fertilisation were applied for each utilisation treatment: nil-fertilisation, P30K60, N90P30K60, and N180P30K60 (pure nutrients). The intensively utilised treatments without N fertilisation showed the lowest mean percentage cover of couch (3.0 %, and 2.8 %, respectively). Further, we found a significant increase in couch grass cover (up to about 30 %) as a response to nitrogen fertilisation and it was most significant in grasslands utilised with two cuts per year. It can be concluded that grassland utilisation in three cuts per year and the dose 90 kg.ha-1 of nitrogen led to the maintenance of the occurrence of couch at the reasonable level up to 10-15 %. Source

Krizova L.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Hanus O.,Research Institute for Cattle Breeding Ltd. | Hanus O.,Dairy Research Institute Ltd. | Hadrova S.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Animal Science | Year: 2014

The aim of the study was to describe the differences in composition, physical and technological properties of raw milk as affected by breed of cattle, season and type of feeding. The study was conducted from June 2005 to February 2007 on bulk milk samples (BMS) collected from 8 commercial dairy herds consisting of Czech Fleckvieh (CF, 4 herds) and Holstein (H, 4 herds) dairy cows. Half of herds in each breed was grazing (G) during summer season while the other half was not (N). Samples were collected regularly two times in winter (W) and two times in summer (S) period resulting in a total of 64 bulk milk samples (BMS) examined. Milk yield in CF (5385.50 kg) was lower (P<0.05) than in H (7015.15 kg). Milk fat in CF was higher (P<0.05) than in H breed being 3.9 and 3.72 g/100 g, respectively. CF cows had higher (P<0.05) content of crude protein, casein, true protein and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) than H. Content of fat, crude protein, casein, true protein and whey protein was lower (P<0.05) in summer (S) than in winter (W). Milk yield in grazing herds (G, 5197.50 kg) was lower (P<0.05) than in non-grazing herds (N, 7203.75 kg). Content of fat was higher (P<0.05) in G (3.89 g/100 g) than in N (3.73 g/100 g). Concentration of lactose, urea, crude protein, casein, true protein, whey protein was lower (P<0.05) in G than in N. In conclusion, the Czech Fleckvieh breed had a lower milk yield but produced milk with higher concentration of the main milk components than the Czech population of the Holstein breed. Large seasonal variations were determined in concentrations of the main milk components. The most pronounced changes in milk composition were caused by the type of feeding with a clear decrease in milk yield and content of lactose and all studied protein fractions and higher content of fat in grazing herds compared to non-grazing herds. © 2014 Ludmila KříŽová et. al. Source

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