Vikýřovice, Czech Republic
Vikýřovice, Czech Republic

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Krizova L.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno | Rysavy J.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno | Richter M.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Vesely A.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
Mljekarstvo | Year: 2017

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of extruded full-fat soybean in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, milk yield, content and daily production of milk components, fatty acid (FA) profile and indices of milk fat quality. Four lactating Holstein cows were divided into control group fed a diet containing extruded rapeseed cake (R) and the experimental group fed a diet in which a part of extruded rapeseed cake was substituted by extruded full-fat soybean (RS). Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and milk composition were recorded. Milk FA profile was determined with subsequent calculation of atherogenicity index (AI), peroxidisability index (PI), desaturation index (DI) and spreadability index (SI) characterising quality of milk fat. Cows fed diet containing RS had higher DMI (17.8 kg/d) than cows fed diet containing R (16.8 kg/d, P<0.05). Milk yield in RS (19.5 kg/d) was higher compared to R (17.6 kg/d, P<0.05). Content of protein and casein was lower in RS than in R while content of lactose and urea was higher in RS than in R (P<0.05). Experimental diet (RS) compared to control (R) had higher (P<0.05) content of unsaturated FA (31.64 % and 30.69 %, respectively). Content of polyunsaturated FA in RS (4.03 %) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in R (3.66 %) mainly due to differences in C 18:2n6c, C 18:3n6 and C 18:3n3 FA (P<0.05). Proportion of short-, medium- and long-chain FA was similar in both groups (P>0.05). PI was higher (P<0.05) in RS than in R being 5.54 and 5.06, respectively. © 2017, Hrvatska Mljekarska Udruga. All rights reserved.

Vyletelova M.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Vyletelova M.,R.Ø.S.A.
Czech Journal of Food Sciences | Year: 2010

The survival of Mycoplasma bovis in milk samples was investigated at three storage temperatures (5°C, -30°C and -80°C) during 5 weeks. For the storage temperatures -30°C and -80°C, the respective samples were prepared weekly and those for culture by repeated defrosting. At 5°C the total number of M. bovis CFU/ml decreased from the initial of 1.13 x 10 7 CFU/ml to the final of 3.92 x 106 CFU/ml. The development in the frozen samples prepared for each week was as follow: (1) at -30°C - from the initial of 1.13 × 107 CFU/ml to 5.69 × 106 CFU/ml; (2) at -80°C - from the initial of 1.13 × 107 CFU/ml to 9.75 × 106 CFU/ml. The decrease in M. bovis colony count was more evident in the samples that were repeatedly defrosted: (1) at -30°C - the initial of 1.13 × 10 7 CFU/ml to the final of 2.18 x 106 CFU/ml; (2) at -80°C - the initial and final values were 1.13 x 10 7 CFU/ml and 7.89 × 106 CFU/ml, respectively.

Karabcova H.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Pospisilova L.,Mendel University in Brno | Fiala K.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Skarpa P.,Mendel University in Brno | Bjelkova M.,Agritec Plant Research Ltd.
Soil and Water Research | Year: 2015

The effect of different kinds of organic matter inputs on elemental composition, content, and quality of humic substances was studied on permanent grassland during 2008-2013. The experiment included two organic fertilizer types - compost and slurry, both with the range of stocking rates 0.9, 1.4, and 2.0 livestock units (LU)/ha (corresponding to 54, 84, and 120 kg N/ha, respectively), and control without any fertilizer. The soil was sandy-loam, of Cambisol type, with semi natural permanent grassland. Labile forms and total contents of selected trace elements (Co, Cu, Zn, Cd) and macroelements (Ca, Mg, K, P, and N) were measured. Soil organic matter parameters such as total organic carbon (Cox), humic substances (HS), humic acid (HA), fluvic acid (FA), and labile carbon forms (hot-water extractable carbon (Chws), cold water extractable carbon (Ccws)) were determined. Results showed that the greatest content of P, Ca, Mg, and N in the soil was detected by the CO 2.0 treatment. Furthermore, the positive effect of compost on Cox, Chws, HA, FA, HS, N and macronutrients was observed. The elemental analysis of humic acids showed lower carbon content and higher oxygen content in HA molecule, which indicated young humic acids, with a lower condensation degree. The content and quality of humic substances strongly influenced the total and labile trace elements content in the soil. Additionally, hot water soluble carbon significantly correlated with plant available forms of Zn, Cu, and Cd.

Krizova L.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Hanus O.,Research Institute for Cattle Breeding Ltd. | Hanus O.,Dairy Research Institute Ltd. | Hadrova S.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Animal Science | Year: 2014

The aim of the study was to describe the differences in composition, physical and technological properties of raw milk as affected by breed of cattle, season and type of feeding. The study was conducted from June 2005 to February 2007 on bulk milk samples (BMS) collected from 8 commercial dairy herds consisting of Czech Fleckvieh (CF, 4 herds) and Holstein (H, 4 herds) dairy cows. Half of herds in each breed was grazing (G) during summer season while the other half was not (N). Samples were collected regularly two times in winter (W) and two times in summer (S) period resulting in a total of 64 bulk milk samples (BMS) examined. Milk yield in CF (5385.50 kg) was lower (P<0.05) than in H (7015.15 kg). Milk fat in CF was higher (P<0.05) than in H breed being 3.9 and 3.72 g/100 g, respectively. CF cows had higher (P<0.05) content of crude protein, casein, true protein and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) than H. Content of fat, crude protein, casein, true protein and whey protein was lower (P<0.05) in summer (S) than in winter (W). Milk yield in grazing herds (G, 5197.50 kg) was lower (P<0.05) than in non-grazing herds (N, 7203.75 kg). Content of fat was higher (P<0.05) in G (3.89 g/100 g) than in N (3.73 g/100 g). Concentration of lactose, urea, crude protein, casein, true protein, whey protein was lower (P<0.05) in G than in N. In conclusion, the Czech Fleckvieh breed had a lower milk yield but produced milk with higher concentration of the main milk components than the Czech population of the Holstein breed. Large seasonal variations were determined in concentrations of the main milk components. The most pronounced changes in milk composition were caused by the type of feeding with a clear decrease in milk yield and content of lactose and all studied protein fractions and higher content of fat in grazing herds compared to non-grazing herds. © 2014 Ludmila KříŽová et. al.

Bradova M.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Bradova M.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Tejnecky V.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Boruvka L.,Czech University of Life Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Aluminium (Al) speciation is a characteristic that can be used as a tool for describing the soil acidification process. The question that was answered is how tree species (beech vs spruce) and type of soil horizon affect Al speciation. Our hypotesis is that spruce and beech forest vegetation are able to modify the chemical characteristics of organic horizon, hence the content of Al species. Moreover, these characteristics are seasonally dependent. To answer these questions, a detailed chromatographic speciation of Al in forest soils under contrasting tree species was performed. The Jizera Mountains area (Czech Republic) was chosen as a representative mountainous soil ecosystem. A basic forestry survey was performed on the investigated area. Soil and precipitation samples (throughfall, stemflow) were collected under both beech and spruce stands at monthly intervals from April to November during the years 2008–2011. Total aluminium content and Al speciation, pH, and dissolved organic carbon were determined in aqueous soil extracts and in precipitation samples. We found that the most important factors affecting the chemistry of soils, hence content of the Al species, are soil horizons and vegetation cover. pH strongly affects the amount of Al species under both forests. Fermentation (F) and humified (H) organic horizons contain a higher content of water extractable Al and Al3+ compared to organo-mineral (A) and mineral horizons (B). With increasing soil profile depth, the amount of water extractable Al, Al3+ and moisture decreases. The prevailing water-extractable species of Al in all studied soils and profiles under both spruce and beech forests were organically bound monovalent Al species. Distinct seasonal variations in organic and mineral soil horizons were found under both spruce and beech forests. Maximum concentrations of water-extractable Al and Al3+ were determined in the summer, and the lowest in spring. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Stybnarova M.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Micova P.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Karabcova H.,Research Institute for Cattle Breeding Ltd. | Svozilova M.,Research Institute for Cattle Breeding Ltd.
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2013

The objective of this research was to investigate occurrence of common couch grass (Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski) under different grassland management by means of a small-plot trial. The trial was managed during 2003-2011 with four levels of utilisation: intensive (4 cuts per year, 1 st cut on 15 May), medium intensive (3 cuts per year, 1st cut on 30 May), low intensive (2 cuts per year, 1st cut on 15 June), and extensive (2 cuts per year, 1st cut on 30 June). Four rates of fertilisation were applied for each utilisation treatment: nil-fertilisation, P30K60, N90P30K60, and N180P30K60 (pure nutrients). The intensively utilised treatments without N fertilisation showed the lowest mean percentage cover of couch (3.0 %, and 2.8 %, respectively). Further, we found a significant increase in couch grass cover (up to about 30 %) as a response to nitrogen fertilisation and it was most significant in grasslands utilised with two cuts per year. It can be concluded that grassland utilisation in three cuts per year and the dose 90 kg.ha-1 of nitrogen led to the maintenance of the occurrence of couch at the reasonable level up to 10-15 %.

Stybnarova M.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Hakl J.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Micova P.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Karabcova H.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2015

The effects of different levels of grazing utilization (two, three and four grazing cycles per year) and mineral fertilization (nil-fertilization; N100P30K60) on the botanical composition of permanent grasslands were studied in the locality of Rapotin (Czech Republic, 332 m a.s.l.) from 2003-2010. The vegetation of the experimental pasture was classified as Cynosurion. It was found that moderate treatment (three grazing cycles per year) without mineral fertilization showed the highest value of diversity index (DI = 6.08), and maximum dominance of legumes (Dmax = 9.1%), particularly Trifolium repens. The highest dominance of grasses (Dmax = 77.7%), mainly Dactylis glomerata and Elytrigia repens, was achieved with the fertilized treatment utilized in two grazing cycles per year. Based on RDA results, tested management treatments explained 26% of species composition variability, where effect of number of grazing cycles per year was five-times higher than effect of fertilization. We recommend grassland utilization in three grazing cycles per year as the most suitable way from the objective of both species diversity and botanical composition of pastures in similar site conditions. Pasture fertilization should be more controlled by careful consideration of individual pasture goals, actual nutrient status of the soil and possible environmental risks.

Stybnarova M.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Hakl J.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Bilosova H.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Micova P.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2016

The effect of grazing cessation management has only rarely been investigated. In this study, the influence of cutting regime in the absence of fertilization was examined during 2005–2011 on a semi-natural grassland in Rapotin (Czech Republic) which had been grazed for more than 30 years before the start of the trial. This was conducted as a randomized plot design with five levels of treatment: 4 C – intensive (four cuts per year); 3 C – medium intensive (three cuts per year); 2 C – low intensive (two cuts per year); 1 C – extensive (one cut per year); 0 C – abandoned (control; without any management). Species richness was significantly lower in treatments 1 C and 0 C than in other treatments. Management and year had similar and significant influence on species composition and explained 23% of its variability. Dry matter (DM) yields were found to be lower in three-cut than in two-cut treatments (5.56 t ha−1 and 6.22 t ha−1, respectively). In the case of grazing cessation, a suitable compromise of three cuts per year can be recommended to guarantee maintenance of species richness, botanical composition, and appropriate grass forage yield under similar site conditions. © 2016 Taylor & Francis

Stybnarova M.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Micova P.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Fiala K.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | Karabcova H.,Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Agriculture | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of organicfertilizers (cow manure + dung water; cattle slurry) applied in different annual doses of nitrogen (54, 84 and 120 kg/ha) by different intensities of grassland utilization (extensive - two cuts per year, medium intensive - three cuts per year, intensive - four cuts per year) on percentage of plant functional groups, dry matter yield, and forage quality. The study was performed on small-plot trial over 7 years on moderately moist grassland in the Czech Republic. The proportion of legumes was significantly higher in the treatments fertilized with cow manure + dung-water combined with medium intensive utilization and intensive utilization (10.2% and 10.3%, respectively). Fertilization significantly increased dry matter yields by 51.9% (cow manure + dung water) and 56% (cattle slurry) compared with unfertilized controls (4.81 t/ha). Grasslands fertilized with cattle slurry showed significantly higher concentration of crude protein (142.9 g/kg) compared with unfertilized (126.4 g/kg). Extensive grassland utilization significantly affected the increase of crude fibre concentration (up to 282.1 g/kg), and decrease of the energy value (up to 4.68 MJ g/kg of NEL). Organic matter digestibility was also negatively influenced by extensive grassland utilization (61.0%, 65.42% and 67.44% for the extensive, medium intensive and intensive utilization, respectively). Our findings suggested that medium intensive and intensive grassland utilization by the organic fertilization, which corresponded to annual doses of nitrogen of 84 and 120 kg/ha were the most suitable from the viewpoint of animal nutrition. © 2014 Marie Štýbnarová et. al.

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