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Faisalābād, Pakistan

Mushtaq M.M.H.,AgroVisions | Pasha T.N.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Mushtaq T.,AgroVisions | Akram M.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2014

The concept of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) was evaluated using 1-d-old straight-run Hubbard broiler chicks (total, 1472) and 4 dietary K (dK) levels (0.86%, 1.02%, 1.18%, and 1.34%) and 2 sources of dK salt (K2CO3 and K2SO4) in a 4×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The 4 dK levels corresponded to DEB values of 200, 240, 280, and 320mEq/kg, respectively. Each of the 8 dietary treatments was randomly allocated to 4 replicates with 46 birds per replicate. The experimental diets were prepared separately for each phase, i.e., prestarter (d 1-10), starter (d 11-20), grower (d 21-33), and finisher (d 34-42). Analyzed water characteristics (pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids) and electrolytes were found within the recommended range. Feed intake (P=0.05), daily water intake (P=0.04), and mortality (P=0.02) were increased by replacing K2CO3 with K2SO4. The source and level interaction was found to affect litter moisture (P=0.04). Either varying levels or replacing salts of dK did not result in improved growth performance that was mainly associated with the simultaneously reduced capacity of the digestive (gizzard and proventriculus) and lymphoid (bursa and spleen) organs of the body. The dK and changing salt (K2CO3 with K2SO4) resulted in a greater dressing percentage (P=0.008), abdominal fat (P=0.03), and blood pH (P=0.01) but did not affect body, breast, and thigh weights. Increasing serum K, Na, and HCO3 were compensated with reduced serum Ca and Cl in higher dK diets. It is inferred that lower levels of dK (i.e., 0.86%) could be used to enhance broiler growth. The supplementation of K2SO4 improved feed and water intake, but reduced livability. The increasing supplementation of dietary K from K2SO4 improved carcass responses and reduced the digestive and lymphoid organ capacity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Mushtaq M.M.H.,AgroVisions | Mushtaq M.M.H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Pasha T.N.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2013

The requirements of different electrolytes (sodium, potassium and chloride), dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) and salt source in broilers have considerably changed in recent times. The increasing level of sodium (Na), potassium (K) and DEB are associated with higher pH (i.e. alkalosis) while lower levels of chloride (Cl) and DEB are linked with a lower pH (i.e. acidosis). A narrow range of DEB (150-250 mEq/kg) is recommended to overcome the variations in acid base homeostasis and normal blood chemistry especially in summer conditions. The supplementation of suitable salts like NaHCO3 and KCl are proven to be beneficial to sustain viability of various biochemical processes. The cations usually alleviate whereas anions exacerbate the lysine:arginine antagonism. In most cases, the electrolytes and their balance (DEB) are considered ineffective in order to influence carcass and related traits; however, the supplementation of their respective salts, particularly NaHCO3 and KCl under heat stress, showed contrary but potentially useful results. The role of electrolytes in combination with coccidiostats is still ambiguous; however, the level of both entities (electrolytes and coccidiostats) should be kept low and studied in detail for mutual compatibility. The inclusion level of electrolytes from various salt sources changes whenever there is change in coccidiostat and environmental condition. Keeping in mind environmental constraints, it is recommended to use the lowest dosage of NaHCO3/ NaCl alongside ionophores. Consequently, it is recommended to supplement electrolytes through a combination of NaHCO 3 and KCl, and maintaining dietary electrolyte balance (150-250 mEq/kg) is mandatory to exploit improved physiological responses of broilers for maximum growth response. Copyright © World's Poultry Science Association 2013.

Kim D.W.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Mushtaq M.M.H.,AgroVisions | Mushtaq M.M.H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Parvin R.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | And 8 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2015

The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of various levels and forms of á-lipoic acid (ALA) on blood biochemistry, immune and stress response, and antibody titers in broiler chickens. The four levels (7.5, 15, 75, and 150 ppm) and 2 sources (powder, P-ALA and encapsulated, E-ALA) of ALA along with negative (C.) and positive control (C+; contains antibiotics) diets consisted of 10 dietary treatments, and these treatments were allocated to 1,200 1-d-old chicks and were replicated 12 times with 10 birds per replicate. Among the blood biochemistry parameters, creatinine levels were almost 3 times lower in E-ALA-supplemented diets compared to the C. diet (0.09 vs. 0.25 mg/dL; P < 0.0001). Neither level nor source of ALA affected blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein (TP), albumin, globulin, or albumin to globulin ratio (AGR). The supplemented diets decreased serum levels of the liver enzymes aspartate-aminotransferase (AST; P < 0.006) and alanine-aminotransferase (ALT; P < 0.0003). The Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibody response in supplemented groups was poor at day zero (P < 0.0001) but increased by d 14 (P < 0.03). Birds did not respond to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccination at any observed stage (P > 0.05). The concentration of cortisol was reduced in chickens fed ALA-supplemented diets as compared to the C. diet (P < 0.001). Results suggest that ALA-supplemented diets ameliorated blood biochemistry profiles and immune responses and reduced stress in broiler chickens. The encapsulated form of ALA was more effective than the powder form. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Mushtaq M.M.H.,AgroVisions | Mushtaq M.M.H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Pasha T.N.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Mushtaq T.,AgroVisions | And 2 more authors.
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2013

Electrolytes (sodium, potassium and chloride) are compounds that dissolve into positive and negative particles in solution. The relationship between these compounds, known as the 'dietary electrolyte balance' (DEB), is affected by either electrolyte or its supplemental salt source. The National Research Council recommended 0.20% sodium, chloride, and 0.30% potassium for starter phase and lower doses of sodium and chloride for the finisher phase of broilers. However, these requirements are increased under heat stress conditions, and birds perform better when increasing levels of these electrolytes are offered, maintaining a DEB of preferably 250 mEq/kg. Increased levels of these electrolytes, especially sodium, were found effective for growth but caused increased water consumption and ultimately higher litter moisture in summer. Potassium and chloride were found effective in the diets of heat-stressed broilers. Sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride have been recognised as the best choice in salt selection for broiler diets, particularly under hot summer conditions. In conclusion, a combination of the electrolytes with higher levels of cations and lower level of anions is recommended. Furthermore, the requirements of these electrolytes should be explored, with reference to current poultry housing systems and modern genetics. Copyright © World's Poultry Science Association 2013.

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