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Kroměříž, Czech Republic

Buresova I.,Agrotest Fyto Ltd. | Hrivna L.,Mendel University in Brno
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D5+10-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D5+10-2. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Dreiseitl A.,Agrotest Fyto Ltd.
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2011

In 2006-2010, resistance to the powdery mildew pathogen was studied in 225 winter barley cultivars of which 86 two-rowed and 139 six-rowed. The examined set included 59 cultivars tested in the official variety trials and 166 cultivars in variety trials conducted by domestic breeding stations in that period. Thirteen known resistances were identified (Ar, Bw, Dr2, Ha, HH, IM9, La, Ly, Ra, Ru, Sp, St and We). No resistance was found in one cultivar only. The most frequent resistance was Ra detected in 114 cultivars (= 50.7%). The resistance Bw was found in 54 cultivars (24.0%). Resistances typical for spring barley cultivars (Ly, Sp, Ru and We) were also frequent (4.0% to 23.6%). Unknown resistances were found in 20 cultivars, in nine of which they were effective to all used pathotypes of the pathogen. Thirty-six cultivars (16.0%) exhibited heterogeneity in the examined trait, i.e. they were mostly composed of lines with different resistances. Research on cultivars possessing unknown resistances continues. Source

Dreiseitl A.,Agrotest Fyto Ltd.
Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

A large number of resistances to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) and their combinations are known in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A similarity of resistance spectra between cultivars carrying the resistance Bw, designated for the winter barley cultivar Borwina, and the near-isogenic spring barley line P15, which carries the resistance Ru2, derived from the landrace Rupee, was found. The objective of this study was to test the difference between resistances Bw and Ru2. Six cultivars were tested, four with Bw and two with Ru2. Testing with 40 isolates showed identical reaction spectra between both groups. Testing of the cultivarKompolti 4 (Bw) and line P15 (Ru2) with 300 isolates confirmed this result. Thus, the resistances currently designated Bw and Ru2 can be regarded as identical, and are determined by the gene Ml(Ru2). Both Bw and Ru2 should be designated by the earlier code, Ru2. Source

Dreiseitl A.,Agrotest Fyto Ltd.
Plant Protection Science | Year: 2011

Virulences to powdery mildew resistances in barley cultivars mostly carrying unknown resistances were determined in 2009 and 2010. Random spore samples of the airborne pathogen populations originating from winter and spring barley fields were obtained by means of a mobile version of a jet spore sampler by travelling across the Czech Republic. In total 301 isolates were studied, 55 differentials carrying mostly unknown resistances were used and 80 pathotypes were found, of which 26 representing 73.1% of isolates were detected in both years. Virulence frequencies showed a wide range from 0% to 100%. Complexity of the 2010 population slightly increased, mostly due to increasing frequencies of virulence to new resistances, whereas the complexity of virulences to resistances in most other differentials decreased. Pathotype 00027 was the most abundant (10.0%). Diversity of the 2010 population considerably increased due to changes in virulence frequencies. Source

In central Europe, winter barley is infected by a broader spectrum of pathogens than spring barley. However, the dominant disease on susceptible cultivars is powdery mildew. The objective of this contribution was to postulate resistance genes in cultivars registered in the Czech Republic and Slovakia from 1993 to 2010 using a set of 40 isolates of the barley powdery mildew pathogen. Seedlings of 42 European cultivars were tested, and 15 known resistance genes were postulated namely, Mla6, Mla7, Mla12, Mla13, MlaRu4, Mlg, Mlh, MlLa, Mlra, Ml(Ch), Ml(Dr2), Ml(IM9), Ml(Lo), Ml(Ru2) and Ml(St). Two unknown resistances were detected, one in cultivars Gilberta, Mirko and Polana, and another in Ricus. Three cultivars (Campanile, Carrero and Mirko) were heterogeneous for mildew response. The most frequent genes were Mlra and Mlh, which were found in 25 and 14 cultivars, respectively. Genes located at the Mla locus were present in 14 cultivars; 11 of these cultivars carried Mla6. No resistance gene was detected in Hanna. Previously unknown resistances will be further characterized. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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