Agrotest Fyto Ltd.

Kroměříž, Czech Republic

Agrotest Fyto Ltd.

Kroměříž, Czech Republic

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Buresova I.,Agrotest Fyto Ltd. | Hrivna L.,Mendel University in Brno
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D5+10-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D5+10-2. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Dreiseitl A.,Agrotest Fyto Ltd.
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2011

In 2006-2010, resistance to the powdery mildew pathogen was studied in 225 winter barley cultivars of which 86 two-rowed and 139 six-rowed. The examined set included 59 cultivars tested in the official variety trials and 166 cultivars in variety trials conducted by domestic breeding stations in that period. Thirteen known resistances were identified (Ar, Bw, Dr2, Ha, HH, IM9, La, Ly, Ra, Ru, Sp, St and We). No resistance was found in one cultivar only. The most frequent resistance was Ra detected in 114 cultivars (= 50.7%). The resistance Bw was found in 54 cultivars (24.0%). Resistances typical for spring barley cultivars (Ly, Sp, Ru and We) were also frequent (4.0% to 23.6%). Unknown resistances were found in 20 cultivars, in nine of which they were effective to all used pathotypes of the pathogen. Thirty-six cultivars (16.0%) exhibited heterogeneity in the examined trait, i.e. they were mostly composed of lines with different resistances. Research on cultivars possessing unknown resistances continues.


Dreiseitl A.,Agrotest Fyto Ltd
Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

A large number of resistances to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) and their combinations are known in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A similarity of resistance spectra between cultivars carrying the resistance Bw, designated for the winter barley cultivar Borwina, and the near-isogenic spring barley line P15, which carries the resistance Ru2, derived from the landrace Rupee, was found. The objective of this study was to test the difference between resistances Bw and Ru2. Six cultivars were tested, four with Bw and two with Ru2. Testing with 40 isolates showed identical reaction spectra between both groups. Testing of the cultivarKompolti 4 (Bw) and line P15 (Ru2) with 300 isolates confirmed this result. Thus, the resistances currently designated Bw and Ru2 can be regarded as identical, and are determined by the gene Ml(Ru2). Both Bw and Ru2 should be designated by the earlier code, Ru2.


Dreiseitl A.,Agrotest fyto Ltd.
Plant Protection Science | Year: 2011

Virulences to powdery mildew resistances in barley cultivars mostly carrying unknown resistances were determined in 2009 and 2010. Random spore samples of the airborne pathogen populations originating from winter and spring barley fields were obtained by means of a mobile version of a jet spore sampler by travelling across the Czech Republic. In total 301 isolates were studied, 55 differentials carrying mostly unknown resistances were used and 80 pathotypes were found, of which 26 representing 73.1% of isolates were detected in both years. Virulence frequencies showed a wide range from 0% to 100%. Complexity of the 2010 population slightly increased, mostly due to increasing frequencies of virulence to new resistances, whereas the complexity of virulences to resistances in most other differentials decreased. Pathotype 00027 was the most abundant (10.0%). Diversity of the 2010 population considerably increased due to changes in virulence frequencies.


Dreiseit A.,Agrotest Fyto Ltd
Plant Protection Science | Year: 2012

In 2006-2010, resistance to the powdery mildew pathogen was studied in 277 spring barley cultivars. They were represented by 54 cultivars in Czech official variety trials, of which 42 were foreign, and 223 cultivars in variety trials conducted by domestic breeding companies in that period. Sixty-eight domestic cultivars (28.8%) exhibited heterogeneity in the examined trait, i.e. they were composed of lines with different resistances to powdery mildew. Thirteen known resistances were identified (Ab, Ar, HH, La, Ly, Mlo, Ri, Ro, Ru, Sp, St, Tu2 and We). The most frequent resistance was Mlo detected in 160 homogeneous cultivars (= 76.6%). The newly described resistance Ro was found in 13 cultivars. Frequency of other resistances was low (maximally 2.4%). Unknown resistances were found in 16 cultivars, in five of which they were effective to all used pathotypes of the pathogen. Research on cultivars possessing unknown resistances and registered heterogeneous cultivars continues.


Dreiseitl A.,Agrotest Fyto Ltd
Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2011

The resistance Heils Hanna (HH) was postulated in several tens of 471 previously tested winter barley cultivars. In this paper, new tests on 29 of these cultivars are reported. Thirty-two reference isolates of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei held in the pathogen genebank at the Agricultural Research Institute in Kromeriz, Ltd. including a Japanese isolate and five Israeli isolates were used for response tests. However, the resistance HH conferred by the gene Mla8 and herein characterised by reaction type 0 to an old Japanese isolate known as Race I was now postulated only in four cultivars. In the other 25 cultivars another resistance, characterised by reaction type 0 to Race I and also to two Israeli isolates, was detected. In addition to the two mentioned resistances, eight known (Bw, Dr2, Ha, IM9, Ln, Lv, Ra and Sp) resistances were found in the set examined. Lomerit was the only registered cultivar tested here in which the newly detected resistance was present alone, therefore, it is recommended that this resistance be designated Lo.


Dreiseitl A.,Agrotest Fyto Ltd
Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2011

In the last two decades, resistance to the powdery mildew pathogen has been investigated in a large number of barleys in the Czech Republic. Several tens of winter barley cultivars were identified with a resistance based on an unknown gene or unknown combinations of resistance genes. In this paper tests on 20 of these cultivars are presented. Thirty-two reference isolates of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei were used. All the 20 cultivars shared a particular, previously unknown resistance. Landi was the first cultivar registered with this resistance and it is recommended that this resistance be designated Ln. Isolates virulent to Ln were already found randomly in old European, and also in non-European pathogen populations, where cultivars possessing the resistance Ln were never grown. On the other hand, the resistance Ln has been highly effective even 13 years after Landi registration.


In central Europe, winter barley is infected by a broader spectrum of pathogens than spring barley. However, the dominant disease on susceptible cultivars is powdery mildew. The objective of this contribution was to postulate resistance genes in cultivars registered in the Czech Republic and Slovakia from 1993 to 2010 using a set of 40 isolates of the barley powdery mildew pathogen. Seedlings of 42 European cultivars were tested, and 15 known resistance genes were postulated namely, Mla6, Mla7, Mla12, Mla13, MlaRu4, Mlg, Mlh, MlLa, Mlra, Ml(Ch), Ml(Dr2), Ml(IM9), Ml(Lo), Ml(Ru2) and Ml(St). Two unknown resistances were detected, one in cultivars Gilberta, Mirko and Polana, and another in Ricus. Three cultivars (Campanile, Carrero and Mirko) were heterogeneous for mildew response. The most frequent genes were Mlra and Mlh, which were found in 25 and 14 cultivars, respectively. Genes located at the Mla locus were present in 14 cultivars; 11 of these cultivars carried Mla6. No resistance gene was detected in Hanna. Previously unknown resistances will be further characterized. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Dreiseitl A.,Agrotest Fyto Ltd
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2014

Hosts and pathogens have adapted their response to each other through genetic changes that have arisen during the course of their co-evolution. In developed countries the longevity of varieties is often short; new varieties frequently possess novel genes with specific resistance to pathogens. The latter must adapt to the resistance genes to maintain pathogenicity. To study this adaptation, 50 Central European and 50 Australian isolates of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) were tested on 50 barley differential varieties with different specific resistance genes. All the Central European isolates differed from each other in their virulence combinations and belonged to 50 various pathotypes, whereas Australian isolates comprised 37 pathotypes. None of the pathotypes detected in Central Europe was identical or similar to any of those in Australia. This can be attributed to the much higher number of virulences in Central European isolates that developed over a long period of contact with a range of host varieties containing specific resistance genes. This has led to a gradual divergence of the Australian and the European Bgh populations. In Europe, unlike Australia, new specific resistance genes are still widely used in breeding barley varieties and the divergence of both populations will continue. © 2014 Association of Applied Biologists.


Dreiseitl A.,Agrotest Fyto Ltd
Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2015

In breeding plants for resistance to disease pathogens major genes are often used. They mostly confer a resistance, which can be overcome by a corresponding pathogen virulence specific to the resistance conferred by that gene. Therefore, monitoring of new virulences in the pathogen population is an integral part of both the study of resistance and practical breeding. The aim of this paper is to present the detection of rare virulences that have been found in aerial populations of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei collected in the Czech Republic during the last six years. In total, 822 random isolates originating from cultivated spring and winter barley fields were evaluated on 37 differential varieties and 12 isolates carrying rare virulences were found. At least four virulences to resistances in Laverda, Psaknon, Venezia and SJ048311 were novel. In contrast, four rare isolates avirulent to the resistance Ha were also found. No isolate avirulent to resistances Ra, HH (a8) and Lo was detected. Monitoring of new virulences allows the selection of resistant donors for breeding new varieties and the identification of new resistances. © 2015, Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding. All right reserved.

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