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Peremarti A.,Agrotecnio Center | Peremarti A.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Mare C.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Aprile A.,University of Salento | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Background: Leaf pigment content is an important trait involved in environmental interactions. In order to determine its impact on drought tolerance in wheat, we characterized a pale-green durum wheat mutant (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) under contrasting water availability conditions.Results: The pale-green mutant was investigated by comparing pigment content and gene/protein expression profiles to wild-type plants at anthesis. Under well-watered (control) conditions the mutant had lower levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids, but higher levels of xanthophyll de-epoxidation compared to wild-type. Transcriptomic analysis under control conditions showed that defense genes (encoding e.g. pathogenesis-related proteins, peroxidases and chitinases) were upregulated in the mutant, suggesting the presence of mild oxidative stress that was compensated without altering the net rate of photosynthesis. Transcriptomic analysis under terminal water stress conditions, revealed the modulation of antioxidant enzymes, photosystem components, and enzymes representing carbohydrate metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, indicating that the mutant was exposed to greater oxidative stress than the wild-type plants, but had a limited capacity to respond. We also compared the two genotypes under irrigated and rain-fed field conditions over three years, finding that the greater oxidative stress and corresponding molecular changes in the pale-green mutant were associated to a yield reduction.Conclusions: This study provides insight on the effect of pigment content in the molecular response to drought. Identified genes differentially expressed under terminal water stress may be valuable for further studies addressing drought resistance in wheat. © 2014 Peremarti et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Seradj A.R.,Agrotecnio Center | Abecia L.,CSIC - Experimental Station of El Zaidin | Crespo J.,Interquim S. A. Ferrer Health Technology | Villalba D.,Agrotecnio Center | And 2 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2014

An in vitro assay was designed to analyze the effect of either Bioflavex® (BF) or each of its pure flavonoid components [Neoeriocitrine (NE), Naringine (NG), Isonaringine (IN), Hesperidine (HS), Neohesperidine (NH), Poncirine (PC)] added at 200μg/g dry matter (DM) incubated substrate on rumen fermentation, methane production (CH4) and microbial population. A treatment without flavonoids was also included as a control (CTR). Rumen liquor harvested from four steers fed with high concentrate diets was used as inoculum in four 72h incubation series. Two samples were taken at the onset of each incubation series (Time 0), and two bottles per treatment were also opened after 12h and sampled for pH, NH3-N, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbiology analyses [total bacteria, Streptococcus bovis, Selenomonas ruminantium, Megasphaera elsdenii, total archaea (TA), hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea (HMA) and Methanosarcina spp. (as acetoclastic methanogen)] using quantitative PCR. The addition of BF or its flavonoid components mitigated the cumulative gas production (P<0.01), except for NE and PC, but no differences (P>0.10) were recorded in the gas production rate (mL/h). At 12h post incubation methane production (mL/g DM) was reduced (P<0.01) by flavonoid addition, except for NE and NG, that did not differ from CTR. No changes were detected in total VFA concentration, but flavonoids increased propionate to the detriment of acetate proportion (P<0.01). The abundance of HMA population was reduced (P<0.01) by BF and its main components (NG and NH). Relative quantification of the lactate producing bacteria S. bovis was not affected by the addition of flavonoids except for a significant increase recorded with NE (P<0.01), whereas the concentration of the lactate consuming M. elsdenii was increased by BF, NG, NH and PC (P<0.01). Relative quantification of HMA was clearly inhibited (P<0.01) by the addition of flavonoids, this effect being more pronounced with BF, NH and NG. Concentration of Methanosarcina spp. was also inhibited by PC, NH, NG and BF (P<0.01). Addition of flavonoid substances enhances fermentation efficiency by improving propionate in detriment of acetate production and clearly depressed HMA communities. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Armengol R.,University of Lleida | Fraile L.,University of Lleida | Fraile L.,Agrotecnio Center
Theriogenology | Year: 2015

Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5°C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P+I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the season at the first artificial insemination, the season at conception, the bull, or the inseminator. The P+I treatment was able to significantly reduce the number of days at the first insemination and at conception when compared with the P treatment in heifers. In multiparous cows, this significant effect was only observed for days at conception. Additionally, the P+I treatment was able to significantly increase the percentage of pregnant animals at the first insemination and decrease the percentage of nonpregnant cows at greater than 150 days in milk production for both heifers and multiparous cows when compared with the P treatment. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Armengol R.,University of Lleida | Fraile L.,University of Lleida | Fraile L.,Agrotecnio Center
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

The objective of the study was to evaluate if on-farm heat treatment of colostrum and bulk tank milk can improve calf health status and morbidity and mortality rates during the first 21 d of life in neonatal Holstein calves receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion. A total of 587 calves were randomly assigned to 2 groups of males and females over 18 mo. The nonpasteurized group (n = 287, 143 males and 144 females) was fed frozen (-20°C) colostrum (6-8 L during the first 12 h of life) that was previously reheated up to 40°C. They were also fed refrigerated (4°C) raw milk from the bulk tank that was also reheated up to 40°C (1.8 L every 12 h). The pasteurized group (n = 300, 150 males and 150 females) was also fed colostrum and milk, but both were pasteurized before freezing. Blood samples were drawn from all calves to obtain serum at 2 to 5 d of life. Serum total protein (g/dL) was determined using a commercially available refractometer. Colostrum and milk underwent routine bacteriological analysis to determine total plate counts (cfu/mL) and total coliform counts (cfu/mL). All the calves underwent clinical examination every 24 h during the first 21 d of life. Every day, calves were clinically diagnosed either as being healthy or suffering from respiratory disease, neonatal calf diarrhea, or suffering other diseases. On-farm heat treatment for colostrum and milk reduced total plate counts and total coliform counts between 1 and 2 log10. Pasteurization of colostrum and milk significantly decreased the morbidity and mortality (5.2 and 2.8%) in comparison with calves receiving nonpasteurized colostrum and milk (15.0 and 6.5%), respectively, during the first 21 d of life, even in animals receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Vallverdu-Queralt A.,University of Barcelona | Vallverdu-Queralt A.,CIBER ISCIII | Odriozola-Serrano I.,University of Lleida | Odriozola-Serrano I.,Agrotecnio Center | And 8 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the carotenoid content of tomato juices was studied. First, moderate-intensity PEF (MIPEF) was applied to raw tomatoes. Afterwards, MIPEF-treated and untreated tomatoes were immediately refrigerated at 4 °C for 24 h and then, they were separately ground to produce tomato juices. Juices were treated by heat treatments or by high-intensity PEF (HIPEF) and stored under refrigeration for 56 days. MIPEF treatment of tomatoes increased the content of carotenoid compounds in tomato juices. An enhancement of 63-65% in 15-cis-lycopene was observed in juices prepared with MIPEF-treated tomatoes. A slight increase in cis-lycopene isomers was observed over time, whereas other carotenoids slightly decreased. However, HIPEF treated tomato juices maintained higher carotenoid content (10-20%) through the storage time than thermally and untreated juices. The combination of MIP-EF and HIPEF treatments could be used not only to produce tomato juices with high carotenoid content but also, to maintain higher the carotenoid content during storage time. ©2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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