Destrez A.,AgroSup Dijon |
Destrez A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Grimm P.,AgroSup Dijon |
Cezilly F.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Julliand V.,AgroSup Dijon
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2015
The digestive system of horses is adapted to a high-fiber diet consumed in small amounts over a long time. However, during training, high-starch and low-fiber diets are usually fed which may induce hindgut microbial disturbances and intestinal pain. These diets can be described as alimentary stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate to what extent changes in behavior are associated with alimentary stress and microbial composition changes of the cecal or colonic ecosystem. Six fistulated horses were used. The alimentary stress was a modification of diet from a high-fiber diet (100% hay) to a progressive low-fiber and high-starch diet (from 90% hay and 10% barley to 57% hay and 43% barley in 5. days). Cecal and colonic total anaerobic, cellulolytic, amylolytic and lactate-utilizing bacteria were enumerated three times (twice on high-fiber diet and once on 57% hay and 43% barley diet). The behavior of horses was assessed from continuous video recording over an 18-h time period. In addition two personality traits were measured: neophobia (assessed from the reaction to the presence of a novel object placed near a feeder in a test arena) and sociability (assessed from the reaction to an unfamiliar horse in a stall). Video recordings were analyzed by scan sampling every 10. min using the following behavioral categories: lying, resting, feeding and being vigilant. In addition, we recorded time spent feeding and time spent in vigilance during the neophobia test, and time spent in vigilance and time spent in interactions with the unfamiliar horse during the sociability test. The alimentary stress induced significant increases of colonic total anaerobic bacteria, lactate-utilizing bacteria and amylolytic bacteria concentrations. When horses were fed the 57% hay-43% barley diet, time spent in vigilance tended to be positively correlated with cecal and colonic amylolytic bacteria concentrations during the sociability test and with cecal lactate-utilizing and colonic amylolytic bacteria concentrations during the neophobia test. These correlations suggested that dietary-induced modulation of the microbiota may affect horse behavior and that behavioral cues may be used as non-invasive indicators of alimentary stress. It might prove useful to prevent intestinal pain of horses on farms. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Horn C.C.,University of Pittsburgh |
Henry S.,AgroSup Dijon |
Meyers K.,University of Pittsburgh |
Magnusson M.S.,University of Iceland
Frontiers in Neuroscience | Year: 2011
Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in patients with many diseases, including cancer and its treatments. Although the neurological basis of vomiting is reasonably well known, an understanding of the physiology of nausea is lacking. The primary barrier to mechanistic research on the nausea system is the lack of an animal model. Indeed investigating the effects of antinausea drugs in pre-clinical models is difficult because the primary readout is often emesis. It is known that animals show a behavioral profile of sickness, associated with reduced feeding and movement, and possibly these general measures are signs of nausea. Studies attempting to relate the occurrence of additional behaviors to emesis have produced mixed results. Here we applied a statistical method, temporal pattern (t-pattern) analysis, to determine patterns of behavior associated with emesis. Musk shrews were injected with the chemotherapy agent cisplatin (a gold standard in emesis research) to induce acute (<24 h) and delayed (>24 h) emesis. Emesis and other behaviors were coded and tracked from video files. T-pattern analysis revealed hundreds of non-random patterns of behavior associated with emesis, including sniffing, changes in body contraction, and locomotion. There was little evidence that locomotion was inhibited by the occurrence of emesis. Eating, drinking, and other larger body movements including rearing, grooming, and body rotation, were significantly less common in emesis-related behavioral patterns in real versus randomized data. These results lend preliminary evidence for the expression of emesis-related behavioral patterns, including reduced ingestive behavior, grooming, and exploratory behaviors. In summary, this statistical approach to behavioral analysis in a pre-clinical emesis research model could be used to assess the more global effects and limitations of drugs used to control nausea and its potential correlates, including reduced feeding and activity levels. © 2011 Horn, Henry, Meyers and Magnusson.
Huang D.,Carnegie Mellon University |
Meyers K.,University of Pittsburgh |
Henry S.,AgroSup Dijon |
De la Torre F.,Carnegie Mellon University |
Horn C.C.,University of Pittsburgh
Journal of Neuroscience Methods | Year: 2011
Vomiting is a common side effect of cancer chemotherapy and many drug treatments and diseases. In animal studies, the measurement of vomiting usually requires direct observation, which is time consuming and often lacks temporal precision. Musk shrews have been used to study the neurobiology of emesis and have a rapid emetic episode (∼1. s for a sequence of retching and expulsion). The aim of the current study was to develop a method to automatically detect and characterize emetic episodes induced by the cancer chemotherapy agent cisplatin. The body contour in each video frame was tracked and normalized to a parameterized shape basis. The tracked shape was projected to a feature space that maximized the shape variations in the consecutive frames during retching. The resulting one dimensional projection was sufficient to detect most emetic episodes in the acute (peak at 2. h) and delayed (peak at 54. h) phases after cisplatin treatment. Emetic episodes were relatively invariant in the number of retches (∼6.2), duration (∼1.2. s), inter-retch interval (∼198. ms), and amplitude during the 72. h after cisplatin treatment. This approach should open a new vista into emesis research to permit tracking and analysis of emesis in a small animal model and facilitate the development of new antiemetic therapies. These results also yield a better understanding of the brain's central pattern generator for emesis and indicate that the retching response in the musk shrew (at ∼5.4. Hz) is the fastest ever recorded in a free-moving animal. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Mession J.-L.,Agrosup Dijon |
Roustel S.,GIP AgroSup Technology Est |
Saurel R.,Agrosup Dijon
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2017
In our preceding study (Part I), the thermal denaturation and aggregation of enriched pea protein fractions, namely vicilin/convicilin 7S (Vic) and legumin 11S (Leg), were investigated in the absence or in presence of casein micelles (CM) at pH ≈ 7.1. The present report (Part II) focuses on the glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) acid-induced gelation of either co-heated proteins in admixture (namely route 1) or thermally-aggregated pea proteins mixed with unheated CM (route 2), while applying a pea protein (either non fractionated PP or Vic or Leg) - to - CM weight ratio of 1: 1 and total protein concentration of 3.6 wt%. The pea protein thermal aggregates obtained by route 1 were of lower size and less soluble than those yielded in isolation. For route 1, gelation of the heated CM – Vic mixture was triggered at a higher pH value and led to higher final storage modulus G′ than corresponding protein samples in isolation. In contrast, the presence of large and sedimentable aggregates in the case of the CM – PP and CM – Leg mixtures impaired gelation. Concerning route 2, either the PP or Vic aggregates mixed with unheated CM resulted in rapid gelation and higher final G’ values than those measured for their single-protein sample counterparts. Viscoelastic properties of the mixed gel depended on the pea protein fraction used, thermal aggregation route, extent of physical interactions between pea proteins during acidification and further involvement of CM. Hence, route 2 would be more reliable than route 1 to produce a “mixed” dairy-like gelled product containing pea proteins with improved texture properties. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Gardarin A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Guillemin J.-P.,AgroSup Dijon |
Munier-Jolain N.M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Colbach N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2010
In fields, the timing of weed emergence flushes is mostly related to the timing and rate of seed germination, which depend on soil temperature and water potential as well as soil tillage and crop sowing date. Base temperature and base water potential for seed germination are parameters required in weed dynamics models to take into account the effects of soil conditions on weed demography. Since these parameters are difficult to measure, our objective was to develop a method for estimating them from easily accessible information. Data on base temperature and base water potential for germination were collected from the literature for 28 weed species. Correlations were then searched for between these parameters and (i) the species ecological indicator values of Landolt and Ellenberg for temperature and moisture and (ii) dates of the onset and end of weed emergence based on experts' knowledge. Both base temperature and base water potential for germination were partially correlated with the species indicator values found in the literature. These correlations explained however only a small proportion of the variance of base temperature and water potential. In contrast, the base temperature of spring-emerging species was highly correlated with the mean soil temperature at the mean onset date of each species' spring emergence flush. Water potential for germination was higher for species requiring high base temperature. The date of spring emergence onset of a species, which can be easily assessed from experts' knowledge, can thus be used to estimate their base temperature and then their base water potential for germination. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Blancard S.,AgroSup Dijon |
Martin E.,AgroSup Dijon
Energy Policy | Year: 2014
Measuring energy efficiency is crucial when planning energy reduction policies. However, decision makers are understandably reluctant to act in the absence of solid data and results supporting a policy position. This paper proposes a methodology to measure the energy efficiency of farms based on the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach. In a manner similar to the cost framework, we decompose energy efficiency measurements into technical and allocative efficiencies in energy contents of inputs. In this study, we replace input prices used in traditional economic efficiency measurements by their energy content. We use the energy efficiency model to explore the optimal input-mix that produces the current outputs at minimum energy-consumption. We demonstrate that this decomposition can help policy makers design accurate energy policies. However, the uncertainty of the data and, more particularly, the energy content of the inputs leads us to recommend using the methodologies to calculate the bounds of efficiency to obtain more plausible and robust results. Based on our analysis, energy efficiency is not a fixed value, and policy-makers should consider it with caution. We use a 2007 database of French farms specialised in field crops for empirical illustration. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
McDonnell C.K.,Teagasc |
McDonnell C.K.,University College Dublin |
Allen P.,Teagasc |
Morin C.,AgroSup Dijon |
Lyng J.G.,University College Dublin
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of power ultrasound (US) treatment (4.2, 11 or 19 W cm-2 for 10, 25 or 40 min) on water-protein interactions during the salting of pork. All US treatments increased the protein extraction above that of the control (p < 0.001), with the exception of 4.2 W cm-2 for 10 and 25 min. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated myosin denaturation at the surface of the sample treated with the highest power (19 W cm-2, 40 min). There was no effect on water binding capacity assessed by centrifuge, however, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance T21 relaxation was increased by 19 W cm -2 (p < 0.05). No changes to the meat matrix were evident by light microscopy. Findings indicate that US salting could be a surface phenomenon which can accelerate mass transfer and extract protein but denature myosin at high power inputs. Potential could exist for US to enhance conventional curing techniques. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fisk I.D.,University of Nottingham |
Boyer M.,Agrosup Dijon |
Linforth R.S.T.,University of Nottingham
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2012
The release of volatile compounds, such as aroma, from a food material during hydration is of wide relevance to the food industry. To this end, dry powders of varying chemical composition were hydrated in a controlled system to investigate the impact of varying composition (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) on the delivery rate of volatile compounds to the headspace. Additional lipid and carbohydrate reduced the concentration of volatile compounds in the headspace and accelerated their rate of delivery to the headspace. Protein had no measurable impact. Of the volatile compounds measured, 2,3 butanedione and acetaldehyde were shown to be released slowly into the headspace, and pyrrol, methyl acetate and pyridine were released rapidly; this differential release rate was strongly correlated with hydrophobicity and would indicate that during hydration there is a temporal dimension to the relative abundance of volatile compounds in the headspace. © 2012 The Author(s).
Mession J.-L.,AgroSup Dijon |
Assifaoui A.,AgroSup Dijon |
Assifaoui A.,University of Burgundy |
Cayot P.,AgroSup Dijon |
Saurel R.,AgroSup Dijon
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2012
Soluble and natural mixed pea proteins (PP) were extracted from defatted pea seeds according to acidic precipitation (PPP) or ultrafiltration/diafiltration (PPDF) procedures. The isolates contained proteins with a low level of denaturation. Mixed pea globulins isolates presented quite similar solubility and thermal profiles, also a similar polypeptide composition. Vicilin/convicilin 7S (Vic) and legumin 11S (Leg) fractions were obtained by batch chromatography using a salt gradient for the elution. Several incompatible systems were built by mixing the pea proteins with an anionic polysaccharide (sodium alginate, SA), when biopolymers were both negatively charged. Most of mixtures exhibited a phase separation phenomenon. From phase diagrams, experimental binodal curves obtained with either mixed globulins or legumin fraction were apparently very close. However phase boundary was better-defined with the Leg fraction. No macroscopic phase separation was evidenced for mixtures with the vicilin fraction. Microstructure of the PP-SA mixtures was investigated by confocal microscopy (CLSM) according to PP composition and biopolymer initial composition. The Leg-SA and most of PPP-SA mixtures exhibited a droplet-like structure, while structure of PPDF-SA mixtures was aggregated-like. With mixed PP, an alginate entrapment within the PP-enriched phase would disturb phase separation. Also density and shape of the protein-enriched microdomains influenced kinetics of demixing. Polydispersity within the PP-SA mixtures, in terms of wide range molecular weights distribution and charge heterogeneity would explain such differences. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
News Article | November 24, 2016
Drosophila epithelium. An enterocyte (green) dumps its damaged contents into the intestinal lumen. Also visible are actin filaments (red) and DNA (blue). Credit: © Catherine Socha. Though purging is not prescribed as often as it was centuries ago, intestinal cells known as enterocytes frequently resort to this age-old remedy. Researchers from the Immune Response and Development in Insects (CNRS), Molecular Immunorheumatology (INSERM / Université de Strasbourg), and PAM Food Science and Microbiological Processes (AgroSup Dijon / Université de Bourgogne) laboratories have demonstrated that enterocytes attacked by pathogenic bacteria rapidly purge themselves of most of their contents. This protects them from infection and leads to a drastic though temporary thinning of the intestinal lining, or epithelium. This work, published on November 23 in Cell Host & Microbe, may eventually shed light on inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's disease. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic bacterium common throughout our environment. Drosophila flies fed a steady diet of S. marcescens die in days. However, analysis of the intestinal epithelium every 24 hours reveals no apparent damage. The researchers decided to study what happens during the first few hours after infection. They found that, during this initial period, the epithelium is remarkably thinner, and seems almost to have disappeared. But it recovers its original thickness in the hours that follow. Enterocytes lose much of their cytoplasm, having expelled most of their contents, though not their nuclei. These cells thereby rid themselves of damaged organelles, of some of the bacteria attempting to penetrate the intestinal wall, and bacterial toxins. This process leaves the epithelium temporarily thinner. The presence of hemolysin, a bacterial toxin that forms pores in the membranes of its target cells, triggers cell purging. The researchers showed that a mutant strain of S. marcescens unable to secrete hemolysin is for this reason actually more virulent. Though the toxin is no longer at its disposal, its absence means the enterocytes are not triggered to initiate protective purging, and the bacteria can then damage the epithelium with other virulence factors. Further studies have shown that this thinning and regrowth of the intestinal epithelium is characteristic of bees, mice, and humans alike. More research will be necessary to determine the molecular mechanisms involved and, more broadly, whether anomalies in this process can help elucidate the causes of inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's disease. More information: Enterocyte purge and rapid recovery is a resilience reaction of the gut epithelium to pore-forming toxin attack. Lee KZ, Lestradet M, Socha C, Schirmeier S, Schmitz A, Spenlé C, Lefebvre O, Keime C, Yamba WM, Bou Aoun R, Liegeois S, Shwab Y, Simon-Assmann, P, Dalle F, Ferrandon D. Cell Host Microbe. 23 Nov 2016.