Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station
Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station
Kemmer C.,ETH Zurich |
Fluri D.A.,ETH Zurich |
Witschi U.,Swissgenetics |
Passeraub A.,Swissgenetics |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2011
Synthetic biology has been successfully used to program novel metabolic function in mammalian cells and to design the first-generation of prosthetic networks that have shown the potential for the treatment of obesity, hormone-related disorders and hyperuricemia in small-animal model systems. By functionally rewiring luteinizing hormone receptor signaling to CREB1 (cAMP-responsive element binding protein 1)-mediated transgene expression via the common cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) second messenger pool we have designed an artificial insemination device which enables lutropin-triggered in-utero release of sperms protected inside cellulose-based implants. Swiss dairy cows treated with such in-utero implants containing spermatozoa and mammalian cells transgenic for luteinizing hormone receptor and CREB1-inducible expression of an engineered cellulase showed ovulation-triggered implant degradation and sperm release leading to successful fertilization of the animals. Synthetic devices plugged into endogenous control circuitry enable the body to automatically control spatio-temporal metabolic activities that could improve the economics of cattle breeding and provide novel opportunities for future therapeutic interventions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Dainat B.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station |
Evans J.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Chen Y.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Gauthier L.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.
Potts S.G.,University of Reading |
Biesmeijer J.C.,University of Leeds |
Kremen C.,University of California at Berkeley |
Neumann P.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station |
And 2 more authors.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2010
Pollinators are a key component of global biodiversity, providing vital ecosystem services to crops and wild plants. There is clear evidence of recent declines in both wild and domesticated pollinators, and parallel declines in the plants that rely upon them. Here we describe the nature and extent of reported declines, and review the potential drivers of pollinator loss, including habitat loss and fragmentation, agrochemicals, pathogens, alien species, climate change and the interactions between them. Pollinator declines can result in loss of pollination services which have important negative ecological and economic impacts that could significantly affect the maintenance of wild plant diversity, wider ecosystem stability, crop production, food security and human welfare. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Braunschweig M.,University of Bern |
Jagannathan V.,University of Bern |
Gutzwiller A.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station |
Bee G.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
We investigated the nutritional effects on carcass traits, gene expression and DNA methylation in a three generation Large White pig feeding experiment. A group of experimental (E) F0 boars were fed a standard diet supplemented with high amounts of methylating micronutrients whereas a control group (C) of F0 boars received a standard diet. These differentially fed F0 boars sired F1 boars which then sired 60 F2 pigs. Carcass traits were compared between 36 F2 descendants of E F0 boars and 24 F2 descendants of C F0 boars. The two F2 offspring groups differed with respect to backfat percentage (P = 0.03) and tended to differ with respect to adipose tissue (P = 0.09), fat thickness at the 10 th rib (P = 0.08) and at the croup (P = 0.09) as well as percentages of shoulder (P = 0.07). Offspring from the experimental F0 boars had a higher percentage of shoulder and were leaner compared to the control group. Gene expression profiles showed significant twofold differences in mRNA level between 8 C F2 offspring and 8 E F2 offspring for 79, 64 and 53 genes for muscle, liver and kidney RNA, respectively. We found that in liver and muscle respective pathways of lipid metabolism and metabolic pathway were over-represented for the differentially expressed genes between these groups. A DNA methylation analysis in promoters of differentially expressed genes indicated a significant difference in DNA methylation at the IYD gene. If these responses on carcass traits, gene expression and DNA methylation withstand verification and can indeed be attributed to transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, it would open up pioneering application in pork production and would have implications for human health. © 2012 Braunschweig et al.
Walther B.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station |
Sieber R.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research | Year: 2011
Increasing amounts of data demonstrate a bioactive role of proteins and peptides above and beyond their nutritional impact. The focus of the investigations has mainly been on vitamin- and mineral-binding proteins, on antimicrobial, immunosuppressing/-modulatory proteins, and on proteins with enzyme inhibitory activity as well as on hormones and growth factors from different food proteins; most research has been performed on milk proteins. Because of their molecular size, intact absorption of proteins in the human gastrointestinal tract is limited. Therefore, most of the proteins with biological functions show physiological activity in the gastrointestinal tract by enhancing nutrient absorption, inhibiting enzymes, and modulating the immune system to defend against pathogens. Peptides are released during fermentation or digestion from food proteins by proteolytic enzymes; such peptides have been found mainly in milk. Some of these released peptides exert biological activities such as opiate-like, antihypertensive, mineral-binding, antioxidative, antimicrobial, immuno-, and cytomodulating activity. Intact absorption of these smaller peptides is more likely than that of the larger proteins. Consequently, other organs than the gastrointestinal tract are possible targets for their biological functions. Bioactive proteins as well as bioactive peptides are part of a balanced diet. It is possible to accumulate bioactive peptides in food, for example by using specific microorganisms in fermented dairy products. Although bioactive peptides have been the subject of several studies in vitro and in vivo, their health potential is still under investigation. Up to now, the Commission of European Communities has not (yet) authorized any health claims for bioactive proteins and peptides from food.©2011 by Hans Huber Publishers.
Tanner G.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety |
Tanner G.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station |
Czerwenka C.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011
An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of residues of eight neonicotinoid insecticides and two metabolites in honey using LC-MS/MS was developed and validated. Two approaches of sample preparation were investigated, with the final method involving acetonitrile extraction and subsequent cleanup by dispersive solid-phase extraction (QuEChERS type). Validation was based on quintuplicate analysis at three fortification levels and showed satisfactory recoveries (60-114%) and high precision (RSDs between 2.7 and 12.8%). Low limits of detection and quantification could be achieved for all analytes ranging from 0.6 to 5 μg/kg and from 2 to 10 μg/kg, respectively. Investigations of Austrian honey samples revealed the presence of acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam residues in honey; however, no sample exceeded the maximum residue limits. On average, flower honey samples contained neonicotinoid residues in higher quantities compared to forest honey samples. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Gutzwiller A.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station
Mycotoxin Research | Year: 2010
A diet contaminated with 2.8 mg deoxynivalenol (DON)/kg was fed at 6 kg per day to 32 mycotoxin-exposed pluriparous sows (M) during lactation. The 31 control sows (C) received 6 kg of an uncontaminated diet. Although more contaminated diet was refused (P = 0.05), DON exposure had no effect (P > 0.1) on body weight loss of the sows during lactation (M: 27.9 ± 12.3 kg; C: 29.7 ± 10.2 kg), the number of weaned piglets (M: 9.8 ± 1.4; C: 9.7 ± 1.6) and their daily weight gain (M: 266 ± 70 g; C: 272 ± 64 g). Several sows were culled after weaning for reasons unrelated to the experiment. Compared with the remaining 21 C sows, the remaining 26 M sows had an identical interval between weaning and the next farrowing (M: 120 ± 1 days; C: 120 ± 1 days) and a similar litter size (M: 14.5 ± 2.7; C: 14.9 ± 3.0; P > 0.10). The daily intake of 17 mg DON during lactation thus did not affect the reproductive performance of the sows. © 2010 Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer.
Zheng H.-Q.,Zhejiang University |
Hu F.-L.,Zhejiang University |
Dietemann V.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station
Apidologie | Year: 2011
Most of the studies on royal jelly (RJ) composition or properties as well as quality standards of commercially available royal jelly are based on RJ harvested three days (72 h) after grafting. In China, some beekeepers produce RJ harvested one (24 h) or two (48 h) days after grafting. There is a lack of knowledge about the quality of the royal jelly harvested earlier than 72 h. This study compared 32 colonies for their chemical compositions of RJ harvested at 24, 48 and 72 h after grafting, according to the proportion of moisture, protein, 10-HDA, total sugar and the value of acidity and superoxide dismutase activity. The analysis of RJ samples revealed that the composition varied significantly (for both fresh and dehydrated samples) and on some occasions above and below the range of present Chinese and Swiss standards. The results suggest that harvesting time should be considered when defining new quality standards of RJ. © INRA/DIB-AGIB/EDP Sciences, 2010.
Guggisberg D.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station |
Risse M.C.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station |
Hadorn R.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station
Meat Science | Year: 2012
A quantitative method for the determination of Vitamin B12 in meat products by RP-HPLC and UV detection was developed and compared to the reference method (microbiological assay, MBA). Vitamin B12 was extracted with 50. mM sodium acetate buffer in the presence of sodium cyanide. For the quantification of total Vitamin B12, it was necessary to release protein-bound Vitamin B12 by pepsin treatment. Cyanocobalamin was detected as total Vitamin B12 after purification and enrichment on an immunoaffinity column. The calibration with five concentrations of Vitamin B12 was linear with a regression coefficient r2 > 0.99. The method was validated at three different concentration levels (5-15. ng/g) with salami showing good recovery rates between 80 and 108% and low relative standard deviations between 1.50 and 7.26% (n = 6). The detection limit was found to be 2. ng/g. The Vitamin B12 levels of 50 meat products measured by the developed procedure were similar or significantly lower than those determined by the MBA. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Schmid A.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2011
Food fat plays an important role in the human diet. On the one hand, fats provide the body with energy, contribute to the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, and act as structural elements of cell walls. On the other hand, a high fat intake is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and coronary heart disease. Animal fats, which contain a high proportion of saturated fatty acids, are often the focus of attention when it comes to reducing the share of fat in the diet. The present overview of the literature describes the amount of total fat and the percentage of individual fatty acid groups in meat and meat products, documents the contribution of meat and meat products to fat intake, and investigates the connection between meat fat and various diseases. The information given is based mainly on data material from Switzerland; data from other countries have been included for comparison. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.