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Farrokh C.,France Inter | Jordan K.,Teagasc | Auvray F.,Maisons Alfort Laboratory for Food Safety | Glass K.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 15 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

The involvement of the pathogenic Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC; also called verocytotoxic-producing E. coli or VTEC) in sporadic cases and disease outbreaks is presently increasing. Infrequent cases are due to ingestion of milk and dairy products. As ruminants are healthy carriers of STEC and most dairy products may provide these bacteria with favourable conditions for their growth, milk and dairy products are a potential source of STEC. But not all STEC serotypes are pathogens; only relatively small numbers in the entire family of STEC are pathogenic. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding of STEC and their significance in milk and dairy products. It is intended to gather the information that is needed to understand how these bacteria are described, detected and characterised, how they contaminate milk and grow in dairy products, and how the dairy industry can prevent them from affecting the consumer. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Sadri H.,University of Tabriz | Mielenz M.,University of Bonn | Morel I.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP | Bruckmaier R.M.,University of Bern | van Dorland H.A.,University of Bern
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2011

The objective was to study changes in plasma leptin concentration parallel to changes in the gene expression of lipogenic- and lipolytic-related genes in adipose tissue of dairy cows around parturition. Subcutaneous fat biopsies were taken from 27 dairy cows in week 8 antepartum (a.p.), on day 1 postpartum (p.p.) and in week 5 p.p. Blood samples were assayed for concentrations of leptin and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was analysed for mRNA abundance by real-time qRT-PCR encoding for leptin, adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2), hormones-sensitive lipase (HSL), perilipin (PLIN), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acyl-CoA synthase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), acetyl-CoA carboxlyase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FASN) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (GPD2). Body weight and body condition score of the cows were lower after parturition than before parturition. The calculated energy balance was negative in week 1 and 5 p.p., with higher negative energy balance in week 1 p.p. compared with that in week 5 p.p. On day 1 p.p., highest concentrations of NEFA (353.3μmol/l) were detected compared with the other biopsy time-points (210.6 and 107.7μmol/l, in week 8 a.p., and week 5 p.p. respectively). Reduced plasma concentrations of leptin during p.p. when compared with a.p. would favour increasing metabolic efficiency and energy conservation for mammary function and reconstitution of body reserves. Lower mRNA abundance of ACC and FASN expression on day 1 p.p. compared with other biopsy time-points suggests an attenuation of fatty acid synthesis in subcutaneous adipose tissue shortly after parturition. Gene expression of AdipoR1, AdipoR2, HSL, PLIN, LPL, ACSL1 and GPD2 was unchanged over time. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Gille D.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP
European Review of Aging and Physical Activity | Year: 2010

Basically, our lifespan is determined genetically. However, several other parameters such as the environment, lifestyle and diet have a high impact on living in the best of health. Many older persons suffer from various diseases, which often cannot be avoided; however, their development can be postponed and symptoms can be mitigated by a balanced diet, moderate physical activity as well as a healthy lifestyle. These diseases are, for example, sarcopenia (degenerative loss of muscle mass), osteoporosis (decomposition of bone structure), digestive restrictions, sensory impairment, water imbalance or a compromised immune system. Psychological modifications, obesity and loss of weight also commonly occur in older adults. To define an adequate diet for elderly between the ages 50 and 80 is difficult, even impossible, because the nutritional requirements differ between the dynamic quinquagenarian and the frailer eighty-year-old. However, several studies have shown that sufficient consumption of high-quality proteins, calcium, vitamin D, anti-oxidative food compounds, water as well as adapted energy values and nourishment with high-nutrient density in combination with physical activity especially help one to remain healthy to a great age. The cornerstone of healthy ageing is the maintenance of normal bodyweight in order to prevent the development of diseases such as osteoporosis, coronary heart disease or diabetes type 2. This publication will review the physiological changes that occur with advanced age and consequential nutritional recommendations for elderly persons. © 2010 European Group for Research into Elderly and Physical Activity (EGREPA).


Castro N.,University of Bern | Castro N.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Kawashima C.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | van Dorland H.A.,University of Bern | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

It is well known that the degree of negative energy balance in high-producing dairy cows is the major cause of delayed resumption of the ovarian cyclicity that closely relates to fertility. Recent evidence suggests that the energetic situation during early lactation critically affects nutrient partitioning, metabolism, and the reproductive axis, whereas the effect of energy status during the dry period is widely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of energy status throughout the entire dry period until early lactation on the onset of the ovarian cyclicity. Blood samples were taken in 23 cows from dry off at 8. wk before expected parturition to 8. wk postpartum for the analyses of metabolites and hormones, and milk samples were obtained 3 times weekly from d 7 of lactation onward to confirm luteal activity and pregnancy by milk progesterone analysis. Energy balance (EB) was measured weekly during the last 6. wk of the dry period and every other week after parturition. Liver biopsies were obtained at 8. wk before expected calving, within 1 d after calving, and at 4. wk postpartum to measure the mRNA abundance of various gluconeogenic enzymes and metabolic hormone receptors. Cows showing luteal activity within 3. wk postpartum were defined as ovulatory during the first follicular wave postpartum (OC), whereas cows without luteal activity within 3. wk postpartum were defined as anovulatory (AC). Energy balance and, concomitantly, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were higher in OC than in AC during the dry period. Plasma thyroxine concentrations and body condition score during the postpartum period were higher in OC than in AC. At the mRNA level (19 cows), hepatic insulin receptor decreased from dry off to early lactation, and mRNA of pyruvate carboxylase was highest at parturition and decreased in early lactation in AC only, whereas both parameters remained unchanged in OC. The mRNA abundance of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-mitochondrial increased from dry off to parturition in both groups, remained high in OC, and decreased again in early lactation in AC. However, none of the investigated gene transcripts differed between OC and AC cows. Thus, ovarian function postpartum appears to be crucially influenced by the energy status during the dry period, which is reflected by timely changes in hepatic mRNA abundance of only a few key metabolic factors in the liver. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.


van Dorland H.A.,University of Bern | Sadri H.,University of Tabriz | Morel I.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP | Bruckmaier R.M.,University of Bern
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2012

Dairy cows with high and low plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in early lactation were compared for plasma parameters and mRNA expression of genes in liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The study involved 16 multiparous dairy cows with a plasma NEFA concentration of >500μmol/l [n=8, high NEFA (HNEFA)] and <140μmol/l [n=8, low NEFA (LNEFA)] in the first week post-partum (pp). Blood samples, adipose and liver tissues were collected on day 1 (+1d) and at week 3 pp (+3wk). Blood plasma was assayed for concentrations of metabolites and hormones. Subcutaneous adipose and liver tissues were analysed for mRNA abundance by real-time qRT-PCR encoding parameters related to lipid metabolism. Results showed that mean daily milk yield and milk fat quantity were higher in HNEFA than in LNEFA cows (p<0.01), and the NEB was more negative in HNEFA than in LNEFA in +3wk too (p<0.05). HNEFA cows had slightly lower (p<0.1) insulin concentrations than LNEFA cows across the study period, and the body condition score decreased more from +1d to +3wk in HNEFA than in LNEFA (p=0.09). The mRNA abundance of genes in the liver related to fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 and very long chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase) and ketogenesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 2) were lower in HNEFA than in LNEFA cows. No differences between the two groups were observed for mRNA expression of genes in adipose tissue. The number of calculated significant correlation coefficients (moderately strong) between parameters in the liver and in adipose tissue was nearly similar on +1d, and higher for HNEFA compared with LNEFA cows in +3wk. In conclusion, dairy cows with high compared with low plasma NEFA concentrations in early lactation show differentially synchronized mRNA expression of genes in adipose tissue and liver in +3wk that suggests a different orchestrated homeorhetic regulation of lipid metabolism. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Arrigo N.,University of Neuchatel | Buerki S.,Jodrell Laboratory | Sarr A.,University of Neuchatel | Guadagnuolo R.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP | Kozlowski G.,University of Fribourg
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

Aquatic plants, and especially the emblematic genus Baldellia (Alismataceae), are among the most threatened organisms, due to unprecedented human-driven habitat destructions. Therefore protection plans are crucially needed and call for thoroughly documenting the genetic diversity and clarifying the taxonomy of this endangered genus. Our sampling included 282 individuals from 42 natural populations and covered the whole geographical range of the genus, across Europe and the Mediterranean. We combined sequencing of nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and chloroplastic trnL-ndhF regions with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping to investigate the Alismataceae phylogeny, and produce a phylogeography of Baldellia. Our phylogeny strongly supported the monophyly of Baldellia and placed it as the sister clade to Luronium and Alisma, therefore excluding, as previously supposed, a close genetic relatedness to the predominantly neotropical genus Echinodorus. The phylogeography of Baldellia outlined patterns consistent with a hypothesis considering glacial refugia located in the Iberian Peninsula and the Italy/Balkan region from which two distinct genetic lineages re-colonized Europe. These two lineages corresponded respectively to Baldellia ranunculoides (Italy/Balkan derived populations) and Baldellia repens (populations recovered from the Iberian Peninsula refuge), therefore supporting differences outlined between the two taxa in previous ecological and morphological studies. These results allowed clarifying taxonomic uncertainties by confirming the genetic distinctness of B. repens according to B. ranunculoides. A third lineage, Baldellia alpestris, originated and remained endemic to the mountainous regions of the Iberian Peninsula. Unexpectedly, B. repens populations collected in northern Africa, appeared to be genetically distinct from their European counterparts, this calls for further investigation to fully address their genetic and conservation status. Finally, we detected a large hybridization zone in northwestern Europe between B. repens and B. ranunculoides. These results were discussed in light of conservation approaches for Baldellia populations. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Baes C.,Bern University of Applied Sciences | Mattei S.,University of Zürich | Luther H.,SUISAG | Ampuero S.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP | And 4 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2013

Genetically reducing boar taint using low-taint lines is considered the most sustainable and economic long-term alternative to surgical castration of male pigs. Owing to the high heritability of the main boar taint components (androstenone, skatole and indole), breeding is an excellent tool for reducing the number of tainted carcasses. To incorporate boar taint into breeding programmes, standardized performance testing is required. The objective of this study was to develop and formally present a performance test for the main boar taint compounds on live breeding candidates. First, a standardized performance test for boar taint was established. A biopsy device was developed to extract small tissue samples (200 to 300 mg) from breeding candidates. Quantification of boar taint components from these small samples using specialized chemical extraction methods proved accurate and repeatable (r = 0.938). Following establishment of the method, biopsy samples of 516 live boars (100 to 130 kg live weight) were collected in the second step. Various mixed linear models were tested for each boar taint compound; models were ranked in terms of their information content. Pedigree information of 2245 ancestors of biopsied animals was included, and genetic parameters were estimated using univariate and multivariate models. Androstenone (in μg/g liquid fat (LF): mean = 0.578, σ = 0.527), skatole (in μg/g LF: mean = 0.033, σ = 0.002) and indole (in μg/g LF: mean = 0.032, σ = 0.002) levels obtained by biopsy were plausible. Heritability estimates for androstenone calculated with univariate (0.453) and multivariate (0.452) analyses were comparable to those in the literature. Heritabilities for skatole (0.495) and indole (0.550) were higher than that for androstenone. Genetic and phenotypic correlations were similar to those published previously. Our results show that data on boar taint compounds from small adipose samples obtained by biopsy provide similar genetic parameters as that described in the literature for larger samples and are therefore a reliable performance test for boar taint in live breeding candidates. Copyright © The Animal Consortium 2012.


Taliun A.,University of Zürich | Bohlen M.,University of Zürich | Bracher A.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP | Cafagna F.,University of Zürich
iEMSs 2012 - Managing Resources of a Limited Planet: Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Meeting of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society | Year: 2012

The Swiss Feed Data Warehouse is a public service for companies, farmers and research institutions that provides detailed and up-to-date information about the concentration of nutrients in animal feed from all across Switzerland. The core of the Swiss Feed Data Warehouse is a carefully curated data warehouse with more than 2 million chemical analyses of 600 feed types and 400 nutrients. The nutrient measurements are enriched with geographical (as postal code and altitude), temporal (as harvesting and analyses dates), biological (as variety and botanical composition) and technical information (as conservation and production methods). We propose a solution that offers to users a fast, effective and intuitive approach to query and analyze large amounts of high dimensional feed data. An interactive web-application enables dynamic query construction and offers multiple charts to visualize feed data. Techniques such as radius search and charts allow non-expert users to detect local correlations and trends in the feed data. Historical information makes it possible for advanced users to analyze changes in the feed quality and determine the balance of nutrients in feed mixes that minimizes the load of severe nutrients from animal excreta into ecosystems.


Patent
Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Alp | Date: 2010-10-01

The present invention relates to a new method of establishing the authenticity and origin of dairy products, more specifically to the use of lactic acid bacterial strains having strain-specific insertion sequence elements as tools for marking dairy products (such as cheese) and identification thereof. The invention also extends to new lactic acid bacterial strains, their use in the production of dairy products as well as the dairy products containing these bacterial strains.

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