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Sadri H.,University of Tabriz | Mielenz M.,University of Bonn | Morel I.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP | Bruckmaier R.M.,University of Bern | van Dorland H.A.,University of Bern
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2011

The objective was to study changes in plasma leptin concentration parallel to changes in the gene expression of lipogenic- and lipolytic-related genes in adipose tissue of dairy cows around parturition. Subcutaneous fat biopsies were taken from 27 dairy cows in week 8 antepartum (a.p.), on day 1 postpartum (p.p.) and in week 5 p.p. Blood samples were assayed for concentrations of leptin and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was analysed for mRNA abundance by real-time qRT-PCR encoding for leptin, adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2), hormones-sensitive lipase (HSL), perilipin (PLIN), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acyl-CoA synthase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), acetyl-CoA carboxlyase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FASN) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (GPD2). Body weight and body condition score of the cows were lower after parturition than before parturition. The calculated energy balance was negative in week 1 and 5 p.p., with higher negative energy balance in week 1 p.p. compared with that in week 5 p.p. On day 1 p.p., highest concentrations of NEFA (353.3μmol/l) were detected compared with the other biopsy time-points (210.6 and 107.7μmol/l, in week 8 a.p., and week 5 p.p. respectively). Reduced plasma concentrations of leptin during p.p. when compared with a.p. would favour increasing metabolic efficiency and energy conservation for mammary function and reconstitution of body reserves. Lower mRNA abundance of ACC and FASN expression on day 1 p.p. compared with other biopsy time-points suggests an attenuation of fatty acid synthesis in subcutaneous adipose tissue shortly after parturition. Gene expression of AdipoR1, AdipoR2, HSL, PLIN, LPL, ACSL1 and GPD2 was unchanged over time. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Farrokh C.,France Inter | Jordan K.,Teagasc | Auvray F.,Maisons Alfort Laboratory for Food Safety | Glass K.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 15 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

The involvement of the pathogenic Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC; also called verocytotoxic-producing E. coli or VTEC) in sporadic cases and disease outbreaks is presently increasing. Infrequent cases are due to ingestion of milk and dairy products. As ruminants are healthy carriers of STEC and most dairy products may provide these bacteria with favourable conditions for their growth, milk and dairy products are a potential source of STEC. But not all STEC serotypes are pathogens; only relatively small numbers in the entire family of STEC are pathogenic. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding of STEC and their significance in milk and dairy products. It is intended to gather the information that is needed to understand how these bacteria are described, detected and characterised, how they contaminate milk and grow in dairy products, and how the dairy industry can prevent them from affecting the consumer. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


van Dorland H.A.,University of Bern | Sadri H.,University of Tabriz | Morel I.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP | Bruckmaier R.M.,University of Bern
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2012

Dairy cows with high and low plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in early lactation were compared for plasma parameters and mRNA expression of genes in liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The study involved 16 multiparous dairy cows with a plasma NEFA concentration of >500μmol/l [n=8, high NEFA (HNEFA)] and <140μmol/l [n=8, low NEFA (LNEFA)] in the first week post-partum (pp). Blood samples, adipose and liver tissues were collected on day 1 (+1d) and at week 3 pp (+3wk). Blood plasma was assayed for concentrations of metabolites and hormones. Subcutaneous adipose and liver tissues were analysed for mRNA abundance by real-time qRT-PCR encoding parameters related to lipid metabolism. Results showed that mean daily milk yield and milk fat quantity were higher in HNEFA than in LNEFA cows (p<0.01), and the NEB was more negative in HNEFA than in LNEFA in +3wk too (p<0.05). HNEFA cows had slightly lower (p<0.1) insulin concentrations than LNEFA cows across the study period, and the body condition score decreased more from +1d to +3wk in HNEFA than in LNEFA (p=0.09). The mRNA abundance of genes in the liver related to fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 and very long chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase) and ketogenesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 2) were lower in HNEFA than in LNEFA cows. No differences between the two groups were observed for mRNA expression of genes in adipose tissue. The number of calculated significant correlation coefficients (moderately strong) between parameters in the liver and in adipose tissue was nearly similar on +1d, and higher for HNEFA compared with LNEFA cows in +3wk. In conclusion, dairy cows with high compared with low plasma NEFA concentrations in early lactation show differentially synchronized mRNA expression of genes in adipose tissue and liver in +3wk that suggests a different orchestrated homeorhetic regulation of lipid metabolism. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Taliun A.,University of Zurich | Bohlen M.,University of Zurich | Bracher A.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP | Cafagna F.,University of Zurich
iEMSs 2012 - Managing Resources of a Limited Planet: Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Meeting of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society | Year: 2012

The Swiss Feed Data Warehouse is a public service for companies, farmers and research institutions that provides detailed and up-to-date information about the concentration of nutrients in animal feed from all across Switzerland. The core of the Swiss Feed Data Warehouse is a carefully curated data warehouse with more than 2 million chemical analyses of 600 feed types and 400 nutrients. The nutrient measurements are enriched with geographical (as postal code and altitude), temporal (as harvesting and analyses dates), biological (as variety and botanical composition) and technical information (as conservation and production methods). We propose a solution that offers to users a fast, effective and intuitive approach to query and analyze large amounts of high dimensional feed data. An interactive web-application enables dynamic query construction and offers multiple charts to visualize feed data. Techniques such as radius search and charts allow non-expert users to detect local correlations and trends in the feed data. Historical information makes it possible for advanced users to analyze changes in the feed quality and determine the balance of nutrients in feed mixes that minimizes the load of severe nutrients from animal excreta into ecosystems.


Patent
Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Alp | Date: 2010-10-01

The present invention relates to a new method of establishing the authenticity and origin of dairy products, more specifically to the use of lactic acid bacterial strains having strain-specific insertion sequence elements as tools for marking dairy products (such as cheese) and identification thereof. The invention also extends to new lactic acid bacterial strains, their use in the production of dairy products as well as the dairy products containing these bacterial strains.

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