Jansch M.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW Research Station Phytopathology |
Frey J.E.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW Research Station Phytopathology |
Hilber-Bodmer M.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW Research Station Phytopathology |
Broggini G.A.L.,ETH Zurich |
And 3 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2012
Monilinia fructicola is a quarantine fungal pathogen in Europe, but many major stone fruit growing countries in Europe have reported its presence recently. In Switzerland, the fungus was first found in a single apricot orchard in 2008. This study confirms the presence of M. fructicola in nine out of 22 commercial orchards in Canton Valais, Switzerland. Five simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs) were developed for M. fructicola and samples from Switzerland, Spain, Italy, France and the United States were analysed and compared in order to assess the genetic diversity of the pathogen, identify the origin of the disease, and verify if the fungus reproduces sexually in Europe. In the 119 European samples analysed, 12 different haplotypes were found, indicating a relatively high genetic diversity of the pathogen considering that the first report in Europe was 10years ago. Three haplotypes found in Europe were identical to those found in the American samples (two from the east coast and one from the west coast). Population structure analysis suggests that the European population is derived from at least two 'invasion' events probably originating from the US (one from the east coast, the other from the west coast). Preliminary evidence of sexual reproduction of M. fructicola in Europe is reported. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP.