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Bahāwalpur, Pakistan

Nasrullah H.M.,Agronomic Research Station | Khan M.B.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Ahmad R.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad S.,Cotton Research Station | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Planting methods and mulching techniques are important factors which affect crop growth, development and yield by conserving soil and plant moisture. A multifactorial experiment was conducted to study the water economy involving different planting methods and mulching techniques in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) for two consecutive years (2004 and 2005) at the Agronomic Research Station, Khanewal. Two moisture stress tolerant cotton varieties (CIM-473 and CIM-499) were planted using four different planting methods i.e. 70cm spaced single row planting, 105 cm spaced double row strip planting, 70cm spaced ridge planting and 140 cm spaced furrow beds (or bed and furrows) along four mulching practices i.e. cultural, straw, sheet and chemical for their individual and interactive effects on various parameters including water use efficiency. Positive interactive effects of furrow bed planting method (140 cm spaced) with plastic sheet/film mulching were observed for all the parameters i.e., highest seed cotton yield (3009 and 3332 kg ha -1), maximum water saving (up to 25.62% and 26.53%), highest water use efficiency up to 5.04 and 4.79 [μmol (CO 2)/mmol (H 2O)], highest net income (Rs. 27224.2 and 50927.7 ha -1) with a cost-benefit ratio of 1.64 and 2.20 followed by maximum net income (Rs. 27382.2 and 47244.5 ha -1) with 1.64 and 2.10 cost-benefit ratio in case of plastic mulch and 2814 and 3007 kg ha -1 in ridge planting method during 2004 and 2005, respectively. It is concluded that cotton crop can be grown using bed and furrow planting method with plastic sheet/film mulching technique for sustainable cotton production and better water economy.

Naseer-ud-Din G.M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Shehzad M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Nasrullah H.M.,Agronomic Research Station
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

The efficacy of various pre and post-emergence herbicides viz. pyroxasulfone @ 0.15 kg a.i. ha-1, terbutryn + triasulfuron @ 0.18 kg a.i. ha-1 and flufenacet + pyroxasulfone @ 0.24 + 0.15 kg a.i. ha-1 as pre-emergence while flufenacet @ 0.24 kg a.i. ha-1, carfentrazone ethyl + isoproturon @ 0.018 kg a.i. ha-1, bromoxynil + MCPA @ 0.49 kg a.i. ha-1 as post-emergence and hand weeding at (20 & 40 DAS) with a weedy check were tested against narrow and broad leaved weeds in wheat during Rabi season 2008-09. The results revealed that Fumaria indica, Melilotus indica and Rumex dentatus density significantly decreased by all the herbicides compared with control. Bromoxynil + MCPA @ 0.49 kg a.i. ha-1 as post-emergence application was most effective in controlling F. indica, M. indica and R. dentatus with maximum mortality at both (30 & 60 DAS) without being phytotoxic to wheat. Bromoxynil + MCPA @ 0.49 kg a.i. ha-1 as post-emergence spray proved significantly better than other herbicide treatments as it severely reduced the weeds biomass as compared to weedy check. Spikebearing tillers (355.75), spike length (15.07 cm), number of grains spike-1 (52.00) and 1000-grain weight (54.00 g) were maximum in bromoxynil + MCPA @ 0.49 kg a.i. ha-1 as post-emergence treated plots, which ultimately enhanced the yield up to 39.13% over control. Bromoxynil + MCPA @ 0.49 kg a.i. ha-1 as post-emergence gave the maximum net income of Rs. 97345 ha-1. However, maximum MRR (%) of 191730 was obtained with the use of bromoxynil + MCPA followed by flufenacet with the MRR (%) of 67590.

Akhtar M.,Agronomic Research Station | Iqbal R.M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Jamil M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Akhtar L.H.,Agricultural Research Station
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of germination percentage, seedling emergence and tillering on yield of different varieties of wheat viz. Punjab-96, MH-97, BWP-97, Panjnad-1, AS-2002, Inqlab-91, BWP-2000, Uqab-2000 and Bhakkar- 2002 sown at different planting dates. The study included six sowing dates starting from 1st November to 16th January of the year 2006-07 with equal intervals of fifteen days. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having three replications, keeping sowing dates in main plots and wheat varieties in sub plots. The plot size was 2.4m ×8m.The collected data were analyzed using computer statistical programme MSTATC. Significant difference were recorded among dates of sowing from 1st November to 16th january with highest mean grain yield of 6292 kg ha-1 followed by 16th November sowing (6059 kg ha-1). After November, yield of all varieties decreased significantly. Lowest grain yield of 2020 kg ha-1 was recorded on 16th January sown. However, all the wheat varieties gave significantly higher yields in a wide range of sowing period i.e. 1st November to 1st December. In late sown crop due to increase in temperature (6-8°C) above normal from mid March to mid April crop reduced its life cycle, resulting in decreased grain yield. Crop emergence was impaired when sowing was delayed owing to low temperature prevailing during stand establishment, which resulted in poor stand and reduced the number of productive tillers which resulted in yield reduction. With delay in planting, high temperature (32-39°C) at reproductive stage (March and April) reduced the patterns of dry matter accumulation as was evident from decrease in final yield.

Luqman M.,Agronomic Research Station | Shah G.M.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Raza M.A.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Shahid N.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Hassan M.,Agronomic Research Station
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2015

Since 2002, farmers in Pakistan have been growing cotton that contains the first generation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Although, formally unapproved and unregulated, a large number of Bt cotton varieties have been cultivated now a days in Khanewal. In order to identify the superior genotype for this area, we studied the comparative growth and yield performance of ten cotton cultivars namely, MNH -886, BH-178, FH-142, VH-301, IU B-222, CIM-602, MNH -456, Tarzen-1, BH-180, FH- 114 on clay loam soil. All the treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. At 160 days after sowing, numbers of bolls plant-1, seed cotton weight boll-1(g) and seed cotton yield (kg ha-1) were recorded for each treatment by selecting five random plants per plot. The results revealed that all these parameters differed significantly (P < 0.05) among Bt cultivars. FH-142 had the highest value for the no. of bolls plant-1, weight boll-1 and seed cotton yield. A positive co-relation was found between no. of bolls plant-1 and seed cotton yield, whereas no such relation could be established between seed cotton weight boll-1 and overall seed cotton yield. It was concluded that FH-142 performed best in all of the studied traits than other cultivars and may be recommended for cultivation in Khanewal agro-ecological conditions. © 2015, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All Rights reserved.

Nazeer W.,Cotton Research Station | Farooq J.,Cotton Research Institute | Tauseef M.,Agronomic Research Station | Ahmed S.,Cotton Research Station | And 5 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Five wheat genotypes were crossed in complete diallel fashion for gene action studies of spike length, spikelets per spike, grains per spike, grain weight per spike and grain yield per plant. Analysis of variance reveals significant differences for all the traits. The significant deviation of joint regression value "b" from zero and non significance of "t" square value, suggested the absence of epistasis for all traits which in turn attested fitness of the data for simple additive dominance model. Additive genetic component (D) proved to be significant for all traits under consideration except grain weight spike per spike, but dominant component H1 and H2 was higher in magnitude than additive (D) for spike length and grain yield per plant, illustrating the prevalence of dominance genetic effects. The additive genetic component was more imperative for genetic manipulation of number of spikelets per spike and number of grains per spike. Dominant genes at most of the loci were in excess than recessive genes for spike length and grain yield per plant which was firmly supported by the positive value of F and further strengthened by the value of (4DH1)0. 5+F/ (4DH1) 0. 5-F which was greater than unity for these two traits. The component that was strongly influenced by the environment was spikelets per spike. High magnitude of narrow sense heritability (h2 n.s) was noticed for spikelets per spike (79%), and grains per spike (88%) thus illustrated fixable and additive heritable variation for these traits. The operation of over dominance was observed for spike length, grain weight per spike and grain yield per plant, whereas, spikelets per spike and grains per spike were under additive type of gene action with partial dominance, implying that spikelets per spike and grains per spike can significantly be improve by pursuing pedigree method while heterosis can be exploited for spike length, grain weight per spike and grain yield per plant, © 2011 Academic Journals.

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