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Faisalābād, Pakistan

Naveed M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Naveed M.,Pulses Research Institute | Ahsan M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Akram H.M.,Agronomic Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

Incessant rise in ambient temperature is threatening sustainability of maize productions, worldwide. Breeding heat resilient synthetics/hybrids is the most economical tool while lack of knowledge of gene action controlling heat and yield relevant traits in maize is hampering progress in this regard. The current study, therefore, was conducted using analyses of generation mean and variance, and narrow sense heritability (Formula Presented) and genetic advance as percent of mean (GAM%). Initially, one hundred inbred lines were evaluated for cell membrane thermo-stability and grain yield per plant on mean day/night temperatures of 36.6°C/22.1°C in non-stressed (NS) and 42.7°C/25.7°C in heat-stressed (HS) conditions. From these, one tolerant (ZL-11271) and one susceptible (R-2304-2) genotypes were crossed to develop six basic generations, being evaluated on mean day/night temperatures of 36.1°C/22.8°C (NS) and 42.3°C/25.9°C (HS) in factorial randomized complete block design with three replications. Non-allelic additive-dominance genetic effects were recorded for most traits in both conditions except transpiration rate, being controlled by additive epistatic effects in NS regime. Dissection of genetic variance into additive (D), dominance (H), environment (E) and interaction (F) components revealed significance of only DE variances in HS condition than DE, DFE and DHE variances in NS regime which hinted at the potential role of environments in breeding maize for high temperature tolerance. Additive variance was high for majority of traits in both environments except ear length in NS condition where dominance was at large. Higher magnitudes of σ2 D, h2 n and GAM% for cell membrane thermo-stability, transpiration rate, leaf firing, ear length, kernels per ear and grain yield per plant in both regimes implied that simple selections might be sufficient for further improvement of these traits. Low-to-moderate GAM% for leaf temperature and 100-grain weight in both conditions revealed greater influence of genotype-environment interactions, indicating ineffective direct selection and advocating for further progeny testing. In conclusion, pyramiding of heritable genes imparting heat tolerance in maize is achievable through any conventional breeding strategy and generating plant material with lowest cellular injury and leaf firing, and higher transpiration rate, ear length, kernels per ear and grain yield per plant. © 2016 Naveed, Ahsan, Akram, Aslam and Ahmed.

Hussain I.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Wahid A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Rasheed R.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Akram H.M.,Agronomic Research Institute
Acta Botanica Croatica | Year: 2014

The greenhouse (GH) effect has emerged as a major factor in changing cropping patterns and limiting crop yields. This study was conducted to determine the comparative growth and photosynthetic responses of selected heat-resistant (cv. Sadaf) and heat-susceptible (cv. Agatti-2002) cultivars of maize to simulated GH conditions during spring and autumn seasons at seedling, silking and grain filling stages in 2007. Fifteen day old plants were shifted to plexiglass-fitted canopies to create GH conditions and data were recorded at each growth stage. The results revealed that the seasons, GH conditions and cultivars had large effects on plant growth and photosynthetic attributes. Simulated GH conditions increased the canopy temperature 4-7°C in spring and 3-5°C in autumn, but increased relative humidity by 2-3% in spring and 5-9% in autumn season. Although GH reduced the growth of both cultivars, shoot dry mass was reduced more in spring grown heat-susceptible maize at all growth stages. Although the cultivars showed a decrease in growth and photosynthesis, GH conditions resulted in less damage to cv. Sadaf than cv. Agatti-2002 in both seasons. Major indicators of sensitivity to GH effect were loss of chlorophyll b and carotenoids, reductions in net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, and possibly reduced ability of Rubisco to fix CO2 in sensitive maize. Copyright® 2014 by Acta Botanica Croatica, the Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb. All rights reserved.

Zafar M.,Jammu University | Abbasi M.K.,Jammu University | Arjumend T.,Jammu University | Jabran K.,Agronomic Research Institute
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2012

Effect of compost (COM) and four inorganic phosphorus (P) sources, diammonium phosphate (DAP), single super phosphate (SSP), nitrophos (NP) and triple super phosphate (TSP) either alone or in combination on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of maize and their effect on soil properties was studied. Each of the inorganic P source and COM either alone or in combination (50:50 ratio) were applied to supply 90 kg P ha-1. The results indicated that conjunctive use of inorganic P sources and COM significantly (P < 0.05) increased plant height, leaf area and chlorophyll content. Grain, dry matter, biomass yield and protein content increased by 10-61, 40-67, 30-67 and 17-46% over control. P uptake increased 17 g kg-1 in control to 29 g kg-1 where DAP and COM was combined. The results also indicated that combine use of inorganic P with COM resulted in significant increase in total N (13-75%), available P (7-57%) and available K (7-20%) compared to control. In addition, increase in plant N accumulation and P uptake associated with combined treatments would help to minimize the use of high cost inorganic P fertilizers for sustainable agro ecosystem.

Khan M.B.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Khan M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Hussain M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Farooq M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2012

Intercropping improves the agronomic output and economic efficiency of a cropping system through effective use of resources than the monoculture. Economic feasibility of different wheat-canola intercropping systems was evaluated by growing hybrid and synthetic canola genotypes as intercrop in wheat. Seven wheat and canola intercropping systems included in the study were 3 rows of wheat + 1 row of hybrid canola, 4 rows of wheat + 2 rows of hybrid canola, 3 rows of wheat + 1 row of synthetic canola, 4 rows of wheat + 2 rows of synthetic canola, wheat sole crop, hybrid canola sole crop and synthetic canola sole crop. Wheat and canola intercropping system with 4 rows of wheat + 2 rows of hybrid canola outperformed with maximum net income, benefit-cost ratio, land equivalent ratio and marginal rate of return compared with all sole and intercrops. However, minimum economic returns and benefit-cost ratios were recorded from sole synthetic canola and its intercrops. Regarding competitive functions, higher values of crowding coefficient and competitive ratio for wheat in all wheat and canola intercropping systems highlighted the dominant behavior of wheat on its companion intercrops. In crux, wheat and canola intercropping with 4 rows of wheat + 2 rows of hybrid canola was more productive and economically profitable than all other inter-and sole crops. © 2012 Friends Science Publishers.

Ghaffar A.,Agronomic Research Institute | Ehsanullah,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Akbar N.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Khan S.H.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 5 more authors.
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2012

Conventional planting methods, poor management practices and imbalanced use of nutrients are the major constraints responsible for low cane and sugar yield of sugarcane. A field trial was conducted during spring 2007-08 and 2008-09 to evaluate the effect of different trench spacing and doses of Zn and Fe on production of sugarcane. The treatments comprised; trench spacing (75, 90 and 120 cm apart) and foliar application of Zn+Fe @ 2.5+5, 5+10 and 7.5+15 Kg ha -1, along with a check. Different trench spacings and levels of Zn and Fe significantly affected the quantitative parameters of sugarcane including number of internodes, cane diameter and stripped cane weight. Higher crop growth rate of 11.87 and 11.74 g m -2 d -1 was recorded in 120 cm spaced trenches and with foliar application of 5.0+10 kg ha -1 of Zn+Fe. Crop planted at 120 cm spaced trenches produced maximum yield of stripped cane 104.6 and 112.8 t ha -1; while application of Zn+Fe @ 5.0+10 kg ha -1 gave stripped cane yield of 106.4 & 110.4 t ha -1 in 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, respectively. Maximum net return of USD 1048 and USD 1511 was obtained from crop grown at 120 cm spaced trenches with foliar application of zinc and iron @ 5+10 kg ha -1 during both the years under study. In conclusion, sugarcane crop can be planted at 120 cm spaced trenches and fertilized with 5+10 kg ha -1 of Zn+Fe for enhanced yield and higher economic returns.

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