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Ferrara G.,University of Bari | Cavoski I.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari | Pacifico A.,University of Bari | Tedone L.,University of Bari | Mondelli D.,University of Bari
Scientia Horticulturae

A recent increasing demand in Western countries for pomegranate products by consumers is especially supported for the nutritional and medicinal characteristics, due to the antioxidant properties of this fruit. Some studies have been published on the morphological and biochemical characteristics of pomegranate fruits in some Mediterranean countries, but little information is available about the genotypes present in Italy and in particular in Apulia (Southeastern region of Italy). This study (2008-2009) evaluated morpho-pomological and chemical parameters of eight pomegranate genotypes localized in private small orchards. Significant differences were observed among the pomegranate genotypes for many of the parameters investigated. In particular, fruit weight ranged from 168.9. g (SouMol) to 574.9. g (SouOst), °Brix from 14.7 (ComTri) to 18.0 (SouMol), titratable acidity from 5.4 (ComMol) to 25.0 (SouTri). g/L. SouMol showed the highest polyphenols (97.1. mg/L) and vitamin C (236.3. mg/L) contents. Oil content of the seeds was between 5.90% and 10.30%, no differences have been observed for the fatty acid composition with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers as the most abundant fraction (81.23%). Considering all the evaluated parameters, and especially those referring to the organoleptic characteristics and antioxidants content, it must be stated that the best genotypes worthy to be considered from agricultural and industrial points of view were AdeSgi for fresh market and SouOst for the juice industry. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Todorovic M.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari | Karic B.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari | Pereira L.S.,University of Lisbon
Journal of Hydrology

The standard FAO Penman-Monteith (PM-ETo) method for computing the reference evapotranspiration (ETo), in addition to air temperature, needs data on solar radiation or sunshine duration, relative humidity and wind speed which are often lacking and/or do not respect appropriate quality requirements. Hence, in many cases, ETo has to be estimated with limited weather data using maximum and minimum temperature only. Essentially, two procedures are used when no more than temperature data are available: (i) the well-known Hargreaves-Samani equation (HS), or (ii) the PM-ETo method with weather parameters estimated from the limited available data, called PM temperature (PMT) method. The application of these temperature-based approaches often led to contradictory results for various climates and world regions. The data used in the analysis refer to 577 weather stations available through the CLIMWAT database. The results, confirmed by various statistical indicators, emphasized that: (a) in hyper-arid and arid zones, the performance of HS and PMT methods are similar, with root mean square errors (RMSEs) around 0.60-0.65mmd-1; (b) in semi-arid to humid climates, the PMT method produced better results than HS, with RMSE smaller than 0.52mmd-1; (c) the performance of PMT method could be improved when adopting the corrections for aridity/humidity in the estimation of the dew point temperature from minimum temperature data. The spatial elaboration of results indicated high variability of ETo estimates by different methods. Thus, a site-specific analysis using daily datasets of sufficient quality is needed for the validation and calibration of temperature methods for ETo estimate. Maps presenting indicative results on under/over estimation of ETo by both temperature methods may be useful for their more accurate application over different Mediterranean climates. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Tanasijevic L.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari | Todorovic M.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari | Pereira L.S.,University of Lisbon | Pizzigalli C.,Saipem | Lionello P.,University of Salento
Agricultural Water Management

The Mediterranean basin is the largest world area having specific climatic conditions suitable for olive cultivation, which has a great socio-economic importance in the region. However, the Mediterranean might be particularly affected by climate change, which could have extensive impacts on ecosystems and agricultural production. This work focussed on the climate change impact on olive growing in the Mediterranean region considering the possible alterations of cultivable areas, phenological dates, crop evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements. Monthly climate data, with a spatial resolution of 0.25°×0.25° (latitude by longitude), have been derived from Regional Climate Models driven by ECHAM5 for the A1B scenario of the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). The data used in the analysis represented two time periods: (i) present, called year 2000 (average values for the period 1991-2010), and (ii) future, called year 2050 (average values for the period 2036-2065). The areas suitable for olive cultivation were determined using the temperature requirements approach known as the Agro Ecological Zoning method. Crop evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements were estimated following the standard procedure described in the FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56. Results showed that the potentially cultivable areas for olive growing are expected to extend northward and at higher altitudes and to increase by 25% in 50 years. The olive flowering is likely to be anticipated by 11±3 days and crop evapotranspiration is expected to increase on average by 8% (51±17mmseason-1). Net irrigation requirements are predicted to increase by 18.5% (70±28mmseason-1), up to 140mm in Southern Spain and some areas of Algeria and Morocco. Differently, effective evapotranspiration of rainfed olives could decrease in most areas due to expected reduction of precipitation and increase of evapotranspirative demand, thus making it not possible to keep rainfed olives' production as it is at present. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

D'Agostino D.R.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari | Trisorio L.G.,University of Bari | Lamaddalena N.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari | Ragab R.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology
Hydrological Processes

Hydrological models are recognized as valid scientific tools to study water quantity and quality and provide support for the integrated management and planning of water resources at different scales. In common with many catchments in the Mediterranean, the study catchment has many problems such as the increasing gap between water demand and supply, water quality deterioration, scarcity of available data, lack of measurements and specific information. The application of hydrological models to investigate hydrological processes in this type of catchments is of particular relevance for water planning strategies to address the possible impact of climate and land use changes on water resources. The distributed catchment scale model (DiCaSM) was selected to study the impact of climate and land use changes on the hydrological cycle and the water balance components in the Apulia region, southern Italy, specifically in the Candelaro catchment (1780 km 2). The results obtained from this investigation proved the ability of DiCaSM to quantify the different components of the catchment water balance and to successfully simulate the stream flows. In addition, the model was run with the climate change scenarios for southern Italy, i.e. reduced winter rainfall by 5-10%, reduced summer rainfall by 15-20%, winter temperature rise by 1.25-1.5 °C and summer temperature rise by 1.5-1.75 °C. The results indicated that by 2050, groundwater recharge in the Candelaro catchment would decrease by 21-31% and stream flows by 16-23%. The model results also showed that the projected durum wheat yield up to 2050 is likely to decrease between 2.2% and 10.4% due to the future reduction in rainfall and increase in temperature. In the current study, the reliability of the DiCaSM was assessed when applied to the Candelaro catchment; those parameters that may cause uncertainty in model output were investigated using a generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) methodology. The results showed that DiCaSM provided a small level of uncertainty and subsequently, a higher confidence level. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Cavoski I.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari | Al Chami Z.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari | Jarrar M.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari | Jarrar M.,Tadweer Waste Treatment LLC | Mondelli D.,University of Bari
Soil Research

Regulation of organic farming allows the use of a limited range of fertilisers and soil amendments to meet nutritional needs of the plants. Before advocating alternative strategies for fertility management, performance should be evaluated. An open field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different fertilisation scenarios on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill, cv. San Marzano) production and soil chemical properties. Fertilisation scenarios were based on combinations of amendments (composts and biochar) with organic and/or mineral fertilisers to balance plant nutrient requirements. Amendments were produced from agricultural and food-industry wastes available in the region. Most of the soil parameters did not vary by the end of experiment; only available phosphorus slightly increased in the treatments where organic fertilisers were applied. All treatments significantly increased yields over control and biochar alone. Different compost types showed promising results for tomato production and quality, whereas biochar did not. The study demonstrated that recycling of nutrients from on-farm or food-industry wastes might be a good strategy to increase productivity and sustainability of Mediterranean organic agriculture when integrated fertility management is adapted. However, more studies are needed to evaluate their effect in long-term experiments. © CSIRO 2016. Source

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