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Bressiani D.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Bressiani D.A.,Texas A&M University | Gassman P.W.,Iowa State University | Fernandes J.G.,Texas A&M University | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering | Year: 2015

The geographical extent of Brazil exceeds 8.5 million km2 and encompasses a complex mix of biomes and other environmental conditions. Multipe decision support tools are needed to help support management of these diverse Brazilian natural resources including ecohydrological models. The use of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) ecohydrological watershed-scale model in Brazil has increased greatly during the past decade. Well over 100 SWAT studies were identified in this review which have been published during 1999 to 2015 in Brazilian and international journals, conference proceedings, and as theses or dissertations, many of which are written in Portuguese. The majority of these studies (102 total) are reviewed here as part of an extensive survey covering the 1999 to 2013 time period. Temporal and spatial distributions, a summary of hydrologic calibration and validation results and a synopsis of the types of applications that were performed are reported for the surveyed studies. A smaller subset of recent Brazilian studies published in English between 2012 and 2015 in scientific journals are also reviewed, with emphasis on hydrologic and sediment transport testing results as well as scenario applications that were performed. The majority of the surveyed SWAT studies were performed for watersheds located in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil (67%) and were conducted in the context of academic research. Nearly 50% of the surveyed studies reported only hydrologic results. Similar trends were found for the subset of more recent English publications. Limited studies have been reported that describe applications of SWAT in Brazil by private firms or government agencies; this review indicates that the potential exists for increased numbers of such studies in the future. However, there is evidence that a lack of accessibility to adequate quality input data is a possible hindrance to the more general use of SWAT for watershed applications in Brazil.

Silva T.A.L.,National Program of Postdoctoral CAPES CAPES UNICAP | Silva M.L.R.B.,Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco IPA | Garrard I.,Brunel University | Tambourgi E.B.,University of Campinas | Campos-Takaki G.M.,Catholic University of Pernambuco
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2016

The growth kinetics of a bacterium of the strain Pseudomonas fluorescens UCP 1514, which is indigenous in soil, has been investigated in batch cultures containing dibenzothiophene. In this paper the potential of the bacterium, when grown in medium with high concentration of dibenzothiophene and its potential for biodegradation were analyzed. The microorganism was grown in medium Luria Bertani-agar medium with 10mM of dibenzothiophene during 24 hours, to select acclimated colonies. After selection of the colonies, the microorganism was maintained in liquid medium with 2 mM of DBT dissolved in dimethylformamide. The kinetics of growth was evaluated through viability and pH. The results showed that the microorganism was able to metabolize DBT. The colonies physiologically adapted that grew on DBT, by DNA amplification using the PCR (polymerase chain reaction) technique and the specific primer BOX have also been identified. © 2016, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.

Borba M.A.C.S.M.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Melo-Neto R.P.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Leitao G.M.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Castelletti C.H.M.,Federal University of Pernambuco | And 3 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2016

CYP2D6 is a high polymorphic enzyme from P450, responsible for metabolizing almost 25% of drugs. The distribution of different mutations among CYP2D6 alleles has been associated with poor, intermediate, extensive and ultra-metabolizers. Aim: To evaluate how missenses mutations in CYP2D6∗7 and CYP2D6∗14A poor metabolizer alleles affect CYP2D6 stability and function. Materials & methods: CYPalleles database was used to collect polymorphisms data present in 105 alleles. We selected only poor metabolizers alleles that presented exclusively missenses mutations. They were analyzed through seven algorithms to predict the impact on CYP2D6 structure and function. Results: H324P, the unique mutation in CYP2D6∗7, has high impact in enzyme function due to its occurrence between two alpha-helixes involved in active site dynamics. G169R, a mutation that occurs only in CYP2D6∗14A, leads to the gain of solvent accessibility and severe protein destabilization. Conclusion: Our in silico analysis showed that missenses mutations in CYP2D6∗7 and CYP2D6∗14A cause CYP2D6 dysfunction. © Future Medicine Ltd 2016.

Mergulhao A.C.E.S.,Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco IPA | Burity H.A.,Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco IPA | da Silva F.S.B.,University of Pernambuco | Pereira S.V.,Technological Institute of Pernambuco ITEP | Maia L.C.,Federal University of Pernambuco
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science | Year: 2010

Problem statement: Mining activities involve the removal of the vegetal cover and the soil organic layer, causing a severe environmental impact. In Northeast Brazil, 40% of the world's crudegypsum is found in a semiarid area, making this region responsible for 95% of the gypsum demand inthe national market. Although economically important, this activity is harmful to the environment. Studies of soil microbiological and biochemical attributes can help in the identification of the limitations of impacted ecosystems, providing data to define strategies for sustainability of such environments. Approach: To evaluate and compare the biological state of preserved and mining degraded semiarid soils, a native preserved area and areas impacted by gypsum mining were selected at the Araripina Experimental Station, located in the semiarid region of Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil. The four sampling areas included: (1) A native, preserved "caatinga" area with spine bearing trees and shrubs and some characteristic xerophytic plants (AN); (2) An area surrounding the mine, presenting the same type of vegetation although already degraded (AM); (3) A waste deposit area (AR); (4) Interface area between the waste deposit and a mining degraded area (AI). Samples were taken in each area (1000 m 2) during two periods: wet (December/2003, Rainfall = 28.7 mm) and dry (September/2004, Rainfall = 1.3 mm). Results: Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis values, microbial biomass C and basal respiration were higher in the preserved "caatinga" than in the impacted areas. The gypsum mining activity reduced the concentration of easily extractable glomalin in relation to the native "caatinga" area in both sampling periods. Higher deposits of total glomalin also occurred in the native area, however, mainly during the wet period. Conclusion: The mining activity produced a negative impact on the soil microbiota, reducing the total enzymatic activity. The microbial biomass was significantly lower in the waste deposit area than in the native and interface areas. The results indicated that the mining activity is harmful to the soil microbiota in this area and that glomalin can be a useful indicator of soil disturbance. © 2010 Science Publications.

Santos T.D.N.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Dutra E.D.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Dutra E.D.,Research Center for Strategic Technologies of the Northeast Brazil | Gomes do Prado A.,Federal University of Pernambuco | And 9 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2016

Prickly pear is a term used to refer to several species of cactus belonging primarily to the genus Opuntia. In general, these species present an exceptional ability to produce biomass in soil and climate conditions unfavorable for most plant species, in part due to their high water use efficiency. Given the current increase demand for renewable energy and the future prospect of more limited water resources, the potential use of prickly pear cladodes for biofuel production deserves to be investigated. The objectives of this study were to gather information on the chemical composition of prickly pear biomass from the most cultivated varieties in NE Brazil, discuss the potential of processing biomass for ethanol and biogas production and to point out gaps in know-how and priorities for research on this topic. We quantified in the tree varieties studied significant amounts of uronic acids (10.7%) and oxalic acid (10.3%), confirming the reports of high amounts of pectin and calcium oxalate in cladodes of prickly pear. The estimated potential of ethanol production for prickly pear (1490-1875 L ha-1 yr-1) was low when compared to traditional biomass sources (sugarcane and sugar beet, for example). However, it appears that prickly pear stands out as a biomass with potential for high production rates of methane (3717 m3 ha-1 yr-1), being comparable to traditional energy crops. Further studies are needed to assess more consistently both the sustainability of biomass production as the potential for ethanol, and biogas production, specially for newly released varieties of prickly pear. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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