Ponta Grossa, Brazil
Ponta Grossa, Brazil

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Pinto V.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Bruno I.P.,Agronomic Institute of Parana | de Jong van Lier Q.,University of Sao Paulo | Dourado-Neto D.,University of Sao Paulo | Reichardt K.,University of Sao Paulo
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2017

An intensification of agriculture in the Brazilian Cerrado during the last four decades has resulted in unintended consequences such as increased groundwater and surface water pollution due to excessive N fertilization. To address these problems within a coffee (Coffea arabica L.) orchard, the process-based ANIMO model was used to simulate nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching and plant nitrogen (N) uptake for several rates of N (200–800 kg h−1 y−1). Effects of splitting N applications from three times per year to every other day were also evaluated for a Typic Hapludox within the Cerrado. Statistical analysis of ANIMO outputs showed that simulated soil solution NO3-N concentrations were in agreement with experimental measurements collected for an entire year. Simulated annual N uptake was also in agreement with average measured N uptake by the coffee plants. An evaluation of the simulation scenarios showed that: i) the most efficient N recovery was associated with N rates between 200 and 400 kg N ha−1 y−1 that were split into at least seven applications per year; ii) N recovery at rates between 200 and 300 kg N ha−1 y−1 were efficient with or without split application; and iii) the most environmentally friendly N management strategy was the application of between 200 and 300 kg N ha−1 y−1 using at least seven splits. Reducing the N rate from 600 to 400 kg N ha−1 y−1 increased plant N recovery efficiency by 8–12% and reduced NO3-N leaching by 28 to 47%. Predicted NO3-N leaching and N plant uptake results confirm that better N management strategies can be developed for coffee plantations and other crops grown in the Cerrado. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Da Silveira Pontes L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Louault F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Carrere P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Maire V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Botany | Year: 2010

Background and Aims: Although plant functional traits (PFTs) appear to be important indicators of species' responses to land use changes, there is no clear understanding of how the variations in traits and their plasticity determine variations in species performance. This study investigated the role of functional shoot traits and their plasticity for variation in above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) due to changes in N supply and in cutting frequency for 13 native perennial C3 grass species. Methods: Monocultures of the grass species were grown in a fully factorial block design combining plant species, cutting frequency and N supply as factors. Key Results: Four major trait associations were obtained by reducing the dimensions of 14 PFTs with a principal component analysis (PCA).Variations in species' productivity in response to an increase in cutting frequency was mainly explained by traits linked to the first PCA axis, opposing high plant stature from lower shoot cellulose and lignin contents and high leaf N content. Variation in species productivity in response to change in N supply was mainly explained by a set of predictor variables combining traits (average flowering date) and a trait's plasticity (tiller density per unit land area and leaf dry matter content, i.e. mg dry matter g fresh mass-1). These traits involved are linked to the second PCA axis ('nutrient acquisition-conservation'), which opposes distinct strategies based on response to nutrient supply. Conclusions: Variations in ANPP of species in response to an increase in cutting frequency and a decrease in N supply are controlled by a group of traits, rather than by one individual trait. Incorporating plasticity of the individual traits into these trait combinations was the key to explaining species' productivity responses, accounting for up to 89 of the total variability in response to the changes in N supply. © The Author 2010.


Maire V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Maire V.,Macquarie University | Gross N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Gross N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 8 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2012

Deterministic niche-based processes have been proposed to explain species relative abundance within communities but lead to different predictions: habitat filtering (HF) predicts dominant species to exhibit similar traits while niche differentiation (ND) requires that species have dissimilar traits to coexist. Using a multiple trait-based approach, we evaluated the relative roles of HF and ND in determining species abundances in productive grasslands. Four dimensions of the functional niche of 12 co-occurring grass species were identified using 28 plant functional traits. Using this description of the species niche, we investigated patterns of functional similarity and dissimilarity and linked them to abundance in randomly assembled six-species communities subjected to fertilization/disturbance treatments. Our results suggest that HF and ND jointly determined species abundance by acting on contrasting niche dimensions. The effect of HF decreased relative to ND with increasing disturbance and decreasing fertilization. Dominant species exhibited similar traits in communities whereas dissimilarity favored the coexistence of rare species with dominants by decreasing inter-specific competition. This stabilizing effect on diversity was suggested by a negative relationship between species over-yielding and relative abundance. We discuss the importance of considering independent dimensions of functional niche to better understand species abundance and coexistence within communities. © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.


Pontes L.S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Pontes L.S.,Agronomic Institute of Parana | Maire V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Louault F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Oecologia | Year: 2012

Productivity-diversity relationships are routinely described mainly in terms of species richness. However, these relationships can be affected by the functional strategy and physiological plasticity characterizing each species as they respond to environment and management changes. This study, therefore, aimed to analyze species interactions in grass communities presenting the same number of species (n = 6) but different growth strategies, and the impact on community productivity across several forms of field management (two different fertilizer application rates, i.e. 120 and 360 kg N ha -1 year -1, and two cutting frequencies, i.e. 3 and 6 cuts per year). For this purpose, we applied the tripartite partitioning method introduced for the analysis of biodiversity effects (BE). Grass species were cultivated on small plots (4.2 m 2) in both mixtures and monocultures. Different management regimes altered both net BE and its component effects: dominance and potential for complementarity. A higher cutting frequency significantly reduced net BE, via a reduction in dominance effect. We found that increased N supply could either increase or decrease complementary effect according to grass mixture composition, i.e. species strategy. Regardless of management intensity, net BE was in general significantly positive especially when including individual species-specific plasticity effects. We conclude that a combination of different grasses has a positive effect on community biomass. Furthermore, both the functional strategy and the functional plasticity of component species play an important role in the intensity of BE. Therefore, biological mechanisms leading to enhanced biomass in six-grass communities are as effective for productivity as management conditions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Eiras C.E.,Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia | Marques J.D.A.,Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia | Prado R.M.D.,State University of Maringá | Valero M.V.,State University of Maringá | And 4 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2014

The effects of corn replacement by different glycerine levels on carcass characteristics and meat quality of 40 young Purunã bulls, weighing 209. ±. 33.3. kg and 8. ±. 0.9. months old, finished in feedlot, were evaluated. The treatments were G00: without glycerine; G06: 6% glycerine; G12: 12% glycerine; and G18: 18% glycerine in the diets, on a DM basis. Hot weight, dressing, conformation and length carcass, leg length and cushion thickness were not (P> 0.05) modified by different glycerine levels in the diets. Glycerine in the diets did not (P> 0.05) affect fat thickness, Longissimus muscle area, marbling and texture. Muscle, fat and bone percentages were not (P> 0.05) influenced by glycerine levels in the diets. No changes (P> 0.05) in lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) on LM occurred when glycerine was included at 0, 6, 12 or 18% in the diet. There was no (P> 0.05) difference in LM moisture, ash, crude protein and total lipids when feeding different glycerine levels. The inclusion of glycerine decreased (. P<. 0.01) total saturated (10.8%), and increased monounsaturated (7.4%) and poly-unsaturated (44.0%) fatty acids, which resulted in a higher PUFA:SFA ratio (0.57). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Maggioni D.,State University of Maringá | Marques J.d.A.,Agronomic Institute of Parana | Rotta P.P.,State University of Maringá | Perotto D.,Agronomic Institute of Parana | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

This work was carried out to evaluate animal performance and carcass characteristics of 45 young bulls of three genetic groups: Nellore, 1/2 Nellore × 1/2 European and 1/4 Nellore × 3/4 European finished in feedlot. At the beginning of feedlot, the average bull was 20 (± 2) months old, and average weight body was 356.0 (± 7.9) kg. The 1/2 Nellore × 1/2 European young bulls had greater (P < 0.05) initial weight (381.7 kg), final weight (531.6 kg) and hot carcass weight (279.2 kg) than 1/4 Nellore × 3/4 European animals (334.6; 498.3 and 256.8 kg, respectively) and Nellore bulls (336.4; 446.4 and 234.3 kg, respectively). The crossbred bulls had greater daily weight gain (1.5 kg) as compared to the Nellore group (1.1 kg). However, carcass dressing was similar (52.3%) among groups. The superiority of crossbred animals over Nellore was observed when considering carcass conformation (good vs. regular), carcass length (136.6 vs. 130.1 cm), cushion thickness (26.6 vs. 25.0 cm), fat thickness (3.38 vs. 1.92 mm) and marbling (light vs. trace). The Nellore group had greater leg length (77.9 vs. 72.9 cm), better meat color (red vs. slightly dark red) and greater bone percentage (16.6 vs. 15.6%) than crossbred specimens. The 1/2 Nellore × 1/2 European groups had greater Longissimus muscle area (68.8 cm 2) and greater fat percentage (23.9%) than 1/4 Nellore × 3/4 European and Nellore animals. There was no difference in regards to texture (fine) and muscle percentage (62.9%). There was no difference among crossbreds for moisture (73.2%), ash (1.03%) and fat (1.81%) levels. Nellore animals had greater percentage of protein (25.3 vs. 23.8%), total cholesterol (27.5 vs. 23.0 mg/100 g muscle), stearic acid (25.0 vs. 21.6%), transvaccenic acid (1.6 vs. 1.3%) and γ-linolenic acid (0.2 vs. 0.1%) than crossbred specimens. Total saturated fatty acids (49.9%), monounsaturated fatty acids (38.1%), polyunsaturated fatty acids (12.1%), n-6 (10.0%), n-3 (1.7%), PUFA/SFA ratio (0.2) and n-6/n-3 ratio (6.27) in the Longissimus muscle were similar among genetics groups. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Eiras C.E.,State University of Maringá | Barbosa L.P.,Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia | Marques J.A.,Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia | Araujo F.L.,Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia | And 4 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2014

This work was carried out to study different levels of glycerine as a partial replacement of corn on apparent digestibility, feed intake and efficiency and animal performance in young Purunã bulls finished in a feedlot. This study used 40 Purunã bulls of 209 ± 33.3. kg live weight and 8 ± 0.9 months old at the start of the experiment. The bulls were kept in a feedlot for 240 days. The diets were as follows: no glycerine and glycerine added at 60, 120 and 178. g/kg DM. The apparent digestibility of nutrients increased with increasing glycerine in the diet, with the exception of ether extract and neutral detergent fibre. Feed efficiency was improved by increasing glycerine level in the diet. The feed intake and animal performance were similar among the four diets. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Agronomic Institute of Parana and State University Londrina
Type: | Journal: Neotropical entomology | Year: 2016

We present the first report on Euphoria lurida (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) infestation on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a crop of industrial and medicinal importance. Between September and October 2013-2015 in Paran State, we observed E. lurida adults feeding on safflower plants from the inception of flower head formation onwards, over an area of approximately 400m


Da Silva F.D.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Amado T.J.C.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Ferreira A.O.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Assmann J.M.,Agronomic Institute of Parana | And 2 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2014

Brazil has the world's second-largest cattle herd and second-largest no-till grain crop area. However, these activities are not frequently integrated because there is a widespread perception that cattle have a negative effect on cropping, especially when high crop yields are a goal. This misunderstanding of the synergy between pastures, livestock and crops is linked to overgrazing at the pasture rotation phase, which causes a decline in soil quality. Few studies have investigated the effect of pasture grazing intensities on soil carbon (C) balance and soil quality in subtropical environments. This work assessed the effects of different grazing intensities (0.10, 0.20, 0.30 and 0.40. m sward height) on soil C indices and animal productivity in a clay Haplorthox. The crop-livestock system model was a soybean/ryegrass plus black oat annual rotation managed for 10 years, using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Grazing intensity affected the quantity and composition of soil C input. Under heavy grazing with limited soil C input, there was a decrease in pasture and an increase in soybean participation in total C input. Soil organic C (0-0.20. m) under different grazing intensities had a linear relationship with C stratification ratio, C management index (CMI) and C pool index. Our results suggest that integrated crop-livestock systems could act as atmospheric C sources or sinks, depending on the grazing intensity. Pastures managed at 0.20 and 0.40. m height had the best balance between CMI and animal daily gain. The best balance between CMI and live weight gain per unit area occurred in sward height of 0.20. m. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Schellberg J.,University of Bonn | Pontes L.S.,Agronomic Institute of Parana
Grass and Forage Science | Year: 2012

The traditional way of interpreting environmental and management effects on floristic composition based on phyto-sociological classification is increasingly accompanied by a trait-based approach. Plant functional traits (PFT) enable us to link morphological, physiological and phenological plant properties to their functions. Recent research on PFT has significantly improved our understanding on competitive ability of species, resulting species abundance and ecosystem functioning, through investigations of ecological strategies, community assembly theory and functional diversity. In this paper, we review the wide applicability of the trait approach in grassland science. The paper summarizes the power of PFT, the variation along soil nutrient gradients, and gives a case-by-case conceptual generalization of mechanisms of interacting traits at plant and canopy scale. We highlight the main trade-offs among traits and trait syndromes that are prospects for plant response to nutrient gradient and consequently for ecosystem processes. We also discuss the role of intraspecific variability in PFT for multiple ecological issues. Links between functional ecology and grassland science are also identified in order to establish research opportunities. For managed grasslands, we believe that progress in these links will allow us to address broad and timely questions regarding community dynamics driven by resource availability and the consequent multifunctionality of these grasslands. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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