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Rodrigues N.P.,University of Campinas | Salva T.D.J.G.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas IAC | Bragagnolo N.,University of Campinas
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

The influence of green coffee genotype on the bioactive compounds and the in vitro antioxidant capacity against the principal reactive oxygen (ROO•, H2O2, HO•, and HOCl) and nitrogen (NO• and ONOO-) species of biological relevance was investigated. This is the first report on the capacity of green coffee to scavenge H2O2, HOCl, and NO•. Variations in the contents of total chlorogenic acids (22.9-37.9 g/100 g), cinnamoyl-amino acid conjugates (0.03-1.12 g/100 g), trigonelline (3.1-6.7 g/100 g), and caffeine (3.9-11.8 g/100 g) were found. Hydrophilic extracts of Coffea canephora and Coffea kapakata were the most potent scavengers of ROO•, H2O2, HO•, NO•, and ONOO- due to their chlorogenic acid contents, which were, on average, 30% higher than those found in Coffea arabica and Coffea racemosa. The results showed that genotype is a determinant characteristic in the bioactive compound contents and consequently in the antioxidant capacity of green coffee. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Polo C.M.,Institute of Biosciences | Moraes T.M.,Institute of Biosciences | Pellizzon C.H.,Sao Paulo State University | Marques M.O.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas IAC | And 2 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

The elderly population has experienced increased life expectancy as well as the increased incidence of gastric ulcers. The peels of fruits from Citrus aurantium L., popularly known in Brazil as orange bitter, are commonly used asatea form for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders, such as ulcer and gastritis. We evaluated the healing effects of essential oil from the peels of Citrus aurantium fruits (OEC) on gastric ulcers in middle-aged rats. We examined the effects of a 14-day chronic OEC treatment on gastric mucosa in middle-aged male Wistar rats that were given acetic-acid-induced gastric lesions by morphometric and immunohistological analyses. Oral OEC treatment significantly reduced the lesion area (76) within the gastric mucosa and significantly increased (P < .05) the height of regenerated mucosa (59) when compared to the negative control group. Immunohistochemical analysis of the molecular markers such as COX-2, HSP-70, VEGF, and PCNA in the gastric mucosa confirmed that OEC treatment induced healing effects by increasing the number of new blood vessels and by augmenting gastric mucus in the mucosa glands. These results suggest that the oil from Citrus aurantium effectively heals gastric ulcers in middle-aged animals; however, safe use of OEC demands special care and precautions. © 2012 C. M. Polo et al. Source

Vidal-Vazquez E.,University of La Coruna | Paz-Ferreiro J.,Technical University of Madrid | Vieira S.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas IAC | Topp G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 2 more authors.
Soil Science

There is an increasing interest in quantifying the space-time variation of soil properties. This issue offers a unique set of problems that have been addressed using various methods. Here, the spatial and temporal scaling behavior of topsoil water content at the field scale was explored using the fractal approach. Results from fractal analysis were compared with those from other methods describing either spatial variability or temporal trends and stability of soil moisture. Time domain reflectometry probes were installed at the 0- to 20-cm depth in a clay loam soil under natural pasture in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Soil water content was measured 34 times at 164 points on a square grid with 10-m spacing. Mean soil water content and coefficients of variation showed significant negative linear relationship for both sampling dates (r = 0.783) and sampling points (r = 0.804). Both spatial and temporal data sets were characterized by a self-affine fractal Brownian motion model that requires two parameters, fractal dimension, D, and crossover length, l. For spatially sampled data sets at different times, D ranged from 2.589 to 2.910 and l ranged from 0.95 to 6.97 m. For temporal data sets measured on 10-m grid nodes, D was between 1.145 and 1.919 and l was from 0.069 to 9.40 days. Fractal analysis added information on the scale dependence of spatially and temporally sampled data sets, which is not taken into account by classical statistics. Also, interpretation of fractal parameters provided further insight when contrasted with temporal stability analysis. Fractal dimension and crossover length of temporal series showed spatial dependence, and ordinary kriging was used to map these two fractal parameters. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Rendon M.Y.,University of Campinas | De Jesus Garcia Salva T.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas IAC | Bragagnolo N.,University of Campinas
Food Chemistry

Sensory changes during the storage of coffee beans occur mainly due to lipid oxidation and are responsible for the loss of commercial value. This work aimed to verify how sensory changes of natural coffee and pulped natural coffee are related to the oxidative processes during 15 months of storage. During this period, changes in the content of free fatty acids (1.4-3.8 mg/g oil), TBARS values (8.8-10.2 nmol MDA/g), and carbonyl groups (2.6-3.5 nmol/mg of protein) occurred. The intensity of "rested coffee flavour" in the coffee brew increased (2.1-6.7) and 5-caffeoylquinic acid concentration decreased (5.2-4.6 g/100 g). Losses were also observed in seed viability, colour of the beans and cellular structure. All the results of the chemical analyses are coherent with the oxidative process that occurred in the grains during storage. Therefore, oxidation would be also responsible for the loss of cellular structure, seed viability and sensory changes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Agbenin J.O.,Ahmadu Bello University | Agbenin J.O.,Botswana College of Agriculture | Cantarella H.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas IAC
Accreditation and Quality Assurance

A soil proficiency test (PT) was administered to 50 participant laboratories in which two sets of samples, consisting of 20 yearly PT samples and 5 'blind' samples in clients' names were analyzed for pH, organic matter, total acidity, extractable calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus by the laboratories. Our objective was to determine whether laboratories take extra care to analyze clients' samples as they do with regular PT samples. The analytical data were evaluated essentially by the procedure described in the international harmonized protocol for proficiency testing of analytical chemistry laboratories. Performance of participant laboratories was assessed by z-scores and summary z-scores statistics involving sum of squared z-scores interpreted as chi-square χ 2 n distribution for zero-centered z-scores with unit variance. From 8 750 determinations, outliers and stragglers accounted for less than 2% of the entire data. Over 93% of the data were satisfactory, whereas between 2 and 4% were either unsatisfactory or questionable in both the PT and 'blind' tests. On the basis of sum of squared z-scores interpreted from χ 2 n distribution table, between 30 and 40% of the laboratories had more than 90% probability of having their measurement data within the robust mean and standard deviation for each soil parameter, while another 30-42% of the laboratories had less than 50% probability of having measurement data within the robust mean and standard deviation. Overall, 21 laboratories (42%) were ranked in Class A either in the PT or 'blind' tests out of which 12 of them (57%) retained this ranking in both tests. Fourteen laboratories (28%) were ranked in Class C in either the PT or 'blind' tests with only 5 of them (36%) consistently ranking in this class in both tests. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

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