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Moreira R.S.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas | Chiba M.K.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas | Nunes S.B.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas | De Maria I.C.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2017

Air-drying of soil samples is a common practice for all-purpose soil testing. However, it may cause the cessation of microbial activity changing the biochemical attributes. For this reason, field-moist samples are commonly used in the assessment of the enzyme activity in soils. This practice may, therefore, discourage the use of enzymes in soil quality evaluations. This study evaluated the effects of air-drying on cellulase, arylsulfatase and acid phosphatase activities in soil; the hypothesis was that the activities of these enzymes determined in air-dried soil samples are similar to those obtained at field-moist samples. Soil samples were collected (0-10 cm) in a long-term experiment that received two rates (10 and 20 t/ha) of sewage sludge and mineral fertilizer and was cropped with maize. Collected soil samples were split into two groups. In the first one, the enzymes were determined at field-moist samples, while in the second one, the samples were air-dried before enzymatic analyses. Acid phosphatase was significantly affected by air-drying while the arylsulfatase activity hardly changed. The results showed that the enzymes determined in air-dried soil samples hold the capacity to identify different organic management and can, potentially, be used as soil quality indicators. © 2017, Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.


Soares J.R.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas | Cantarella H.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas | Vargas V.P.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas | Carmo J.B.,Federal University of São Carlos | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2015

The environmental benefits of producing biofuels from sugarcane have been questioned due to greenhouse gas emissions during the biomass production stage, especially nitrous oxide (N2O) associated with nitrogen (N) fertilization. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) dicyandiamide (DCD) and 3,4 dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and a controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) to reduce N2O emissions from urea, applied at a rate of 120 kg ha-1 of N. Two field experiments in ratoon cycle sugarcane were performed in Brazil. The treatments were (i) no N (control), (ii) urea, (iii) urea+DCD, (iv) urea+DMPP, and (v) CRF. Measurements of N2O fluxes were performed using static chambers with four replications. The measurements were conducted three times per week during the first 3 mo and biweekly afterward for a total of 217 and 382 d in the first and second seasons, respectively. The cumulative N2O-N emissions in the first ratoon cycle were 1098 g ha-1 in the control treatment and 1924 g ha-1 with urea (0.7% of the total N applied). Addition of NIs to urea reduced N2O emissions by more than 90%, which did not differ from those of the plots without N. The CRF treatment showed N2O emissions no different from those of urea. The results were similar in the second ratoon: the treatment with urea showed N2O emissions of 0.75% of N applied N. Application of NIs resulted in a strong reduction in N2O emissions, but CRF increased emissions compared with urea. We therefore conclude that both NIs can be options for mitigation of greenhouse gas emission in sugarcane used for bioenergy. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.


Martins V.V.,University of Sao Paulo | Pitondo-Silva A.,University of Sao Paulo | de Melo Manco L.,University of Sao Paulo | Falcao J.P.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
APMIS | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of virulence genes among clinical and environmental isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to establish their genetic relationships by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR). A total of 60 P. aeruginosa isolates from environmental and clinical sources were studied. Of these, 20 bacterial isolates were from soil, 20 from water, and 20 from patients with cystic fibrosis. Analysis of ERIC-PCR demonstrated that the isolates of P. aeruginosa showed a considerable genetic variability, regardless of their habitat. Numerous virulence genes were detected in both clinical and environmental isolates, reinforcing the possible pathogenic potential of soil and water isolates. The results showed that the environmental P. aeruginosa has all the apparatus needed to cause disease in humans and animals. © 2013 APMIS.


Ribeiro J.S.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Augusto F.,University of Campinas | Salva T.J.G.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas | Ferreira M.M.C.,University of Campinas
Talanta | Year: 2012

In this work, soft modeling based on chemometric analyses of coffee beverage sensory data and the chromatographic profiles of volatile roasted coffee compounds is proposed to predict the scores of acidity, bitterness, flavor, cleanliness, body, and overall quality of the coffee beverage. A partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to construct the models. The ordered predictor selection (OPS) algorithm was applied to select the compounds for the regression model of each sensory attribute in order to take only significant chromatographic peaks into account. The prediction errors of these models, using 4 or 5 latent variables, were equal to 0.28, 0.33, 0.35, 0.33, 0.34 and 0.41, for each of the attributes and compatible with the errors of the mean scores of the experts. Thus, the results proved the feasibility of using a similar methodology in on-line or routine applications to predict the sensory quality of Brazilian Arabica coffee. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Bin A.,University of Campinas | Salles-Filho S.,University of Campinas | Capanema L.M.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas | Colugnati F.A.B.,Federal University of Juiz de fora
Scientometrics | Year: 2014

We investigated the extent to which different selection mechanisms for awarding scholarships varied in their short- and longer-term consequences in the performance of awardees in terms of scientific production. We conducted an impact evaluation study on undergraduate, master’s, and PhD research scholarships and compared two different financial sources in Brazil: in one, the selection mechanism was based on a peer review system; the other was based on an institutional system other than peer review. Over 8,500 questionnaires were successfully completed, covering the period 1995–2009. The two groups were compared in terms of their scientific performance using a propensity score approach. We found that the peer-reviewed scholarship awardees showed better performance: they published more often and in journals with higher impact factors than scholarship awardees from the other group. However, two other results indicate a different situation. First, over the long-term, awardees under the peer review system continued to increase their publication rate and published in higher-quality journals; however, the differences with the control group tended to diminish after PhD graduation. Second, the better performance of peer-reviewed scholarships was not observed in all subject areas. The main policy implications of this study relate to a better understanding of selection mechanisms and the heterogeneity regarding the relation between selection processes and scientific and academic output. © 2014, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Mazzafera P.,University of Campinas | Silvarolla M.B.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas
Seed Science Research | Year: 2010

Coffea arabica L. is highly homozygotic and caffeine content in most cultivars is reported to be similar (approximately 1%). The caffeine content was analysed using individual seeds of cultivars Catua Vermelho, Mundo Novo and Bourbon Vermelho, and varieties Mokka and Laurina of C. arabica. Seeds were cut transversely in half, a thin slice from each was extracted in a mixture of chloroform and methanol, and caffeine was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The extraction procedure was validated by comparison with two conventional methods less suited for analysing large numbers of seeds. The results revealed an unexpectedly large variation [Catua Vermelho: 3.72-25.9mgg-1 (seeds); Mundo Novo: 5.06-18.59mgg-1; Bourbon Vermelho: 6.76-16.59mgg-1] even in types naturally low in caffeine such as Laurina (1.17-9.97mgg-1) and Mokka (2.01-9.64mgg-1). The mean values for all cultivars were always in the range of the caffeine content found in the literature. Several studies showed that C. arabica has approximately 10% cross-pollination, but the variation observed in caffeine content in individual seeds was too large to be explained by cross-pollination. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.


Colomeu T.C.,University of Campinas | Figueiredo D.,University of Campinas | Cazarin C.B.B.,University of Campinas | Schumacher N.S.G.,University of Campinas | And 3 more authors.
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2014

Leaves of Passiflora alata Curtis were characterized for their antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant analyses of DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, ORAC and phenolic compounds were made in three different extracts: aqueous, methanol/acetone and ethanol. Aqueous extract was found to be the best solvent for recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, when compared with methanol/acetone and ethanol. To study the anti-inflammatory properties of this extract in experimental type 1 diabetes, NOD mice were divided into two groups: the P. alata group, treated with aqueous extract of P. alata Curtis, and a non-treated control group, followed by diabetes expression analysis. The consumption of aqueous extract and water ad libitum lasted 28 weeks. The treated-group presented a decrease in diabetes incidence, a low quantity of infiltrative cells in pancreatic islets and increased glutathione in the kidney and liver (p < 0.05), when compared with the diabetic and non-diabetic control-groups. In conclusion, our results suggest that the consumption of aqueous extract of P. alata may be considered a good source of natural antioxidants and compounds found in its composition can act as anti-inflammatory agents, helping in the control of diabetes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Cardoso D.C.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas | Martinati J.C.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas | Giachetto P.F.,Embrapa Agriculture Informatics | Vidal R.O.,University of Campinas | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Background: A successful development of herbivorous insects into plant tissues depends on coordination of metabolic processes. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to recognize such attacks, and to trigger a defense response. To understand the transcriptional basis of this response, we compare gene expression profiles of two coffee genotypes, susceptible and resistant to leaf miner (Leucoptera coffella). A total of 22000 EST sequences from the Coffee Genome Database were selected for a microarray analysis. Fluorescence probes were synthesized using mRNA from the infested and non-infested coffee plants. Array hybridization, scanning and data normalization were performed using Nimble Scan® e ArrayStar® platforms. Genes with foldchange values +/-2 were considered differentially expressed. A validation of 18 differentially expressed genes was performed in infected plants using qRT-PCR approach.Results: The microarray analysis indicated that resistant plants differ in gene expression profile. We identified relevant transcriptional changes in defense strategies before insect attack. Expression changes (>2.00-fold) were found in resistant plants for 2137 genes (1266 up-regulated and 873 down-regulated). Up-regulated genes include those responsible for defense mechanisms, hypersensitive response and genes involved with cellular function and maintenance. Also, our analyses indicated that differential expression profiles between resistant and susceptible genotypes are observed in the absence of leaf-miner, indicating that defense is already build up in resistant plants, as a priming mechanism. Validation of selected genes pointed to four selected genes as suitable candidates for markers in assisted-selection of novel cultivars.Conclusions: Our results show evidences that coffee defense responses against leaf-miner attack are balanced with other cellular functions. Also analyses suggest a major metabolic reconfiguration that highlights the complexity of this response. © 2014 Cardoso et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Borem F.M.,Federal University of Lavras | Ribeiro F.C.,Federal University of Lavras | Figueiredo L.P.,Federal University of Lavras | Giomo G.S.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2013

The objective this study was to commercially validate the effects of an artificial atmosphere on the color, flavor and aroma of green coffee beans stored after 12 months. The coffees were evaluated by a sensory panel composed of 13 tasters who were judges certified by the Specialty Coffee Association of America and who operate commercially in various coffee-producing regions of Brazil. The evaluation consisted of a 2 × 2 factorial design with three replicates, two storage conditions (hermetic big-bags with and without CO2 injection, i.e., a modified atmosphere and a controlled atmosphere, respectively) and two sampling positions (upper and medium). Two additional treatments were studied as controls: jute sacks and GrainPro sacks. The beans were qualitatively evaluated for their color and for their beverage quality attributes including their fragrance, sweetness, acidity, flavor, body and aftertaste. The beans packaged in hermetic big-bags with a CO2 injection maintained a specialty coffee classification. Impermeable packaging preserved the initial color of the coffee beans. Coffee storage in hermetic packaging preserves the desirable aromas of the coffee. The frequencies of the sweetness and acidity attributes were predominantly low for the coffees packaged in jute sacks. Undesirable flavors and aromas predominated in the coffees packaged in jute sacks. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Schlick-Souza E.C.,São Paulo State University | Baldin E.L.L.,São Paulo State University | Lourencao A.L.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2011

This work evaluated the preference of Ascia monuste orseis among 29 cultivars of collard greens through free- and no-choice assays using female adults (attractiveness and oviposition) and third-instar larvae (feeding preference), in both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. In free-choice tests with female adults, the L, V, Y, H, A, and Z cultivars produced oviposition non-preference in butterflies. Cultivars R, P, C, and D produced feeding non-preference in third-instar larvae of A. monuste orseis in free- and no-choice tests. Our findings may be useful for genetic improvement focusing on the development of B. oleracea var. acephala cultivars resistant to A. monuste orseis. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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