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Martins V.V.,University of Sao Paulo | Pitondo-Silva A.,University of Sao Paulo | de Melo Manco L.,University of Sao Paulo | Falcao J.P.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
APMIS | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of virulence genes among clinical and environmental isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to establish their genetic relationships by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR). A total of 60 P. aeruginosa isolates from environmental and clinical sources were studied. Of these, 20 bacterial isolates were from soil, 20 from water, and 20 from patients with cystic fibrosis. Analysis of ERIC-PCR demonstrated that the isolates of P. aeruginosa showed a considerable genetic variability, regardless of their habitat. Numerous virulence genes were detected in both clinical and environmental isolates, reinforcing the possible pathogenic potential of soil and water isolates. The results showed that the environmental P. aeruginosa has all the apparatus needed to cause disease in humans and animals. © 2013 APMIS.

Borem F.M.,Federal University of Lavras | Ribeiro F.C.,Federal University of Lavras | Figueiredo L.P.,Federal University of Lavras | Giomo G.S.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2013

The objective this study was to commercially validate the effects of an artificial atmosphere on the color, flavor and aroma of green coffee beans stored after 12 months. The coffees were evaluated by a sensory panel composed of 13 tasters who were judges certified by the Specialty Coffee Association of America and who operate commercially in various coffee-producing regions of Brazil. The evaluation consisted of a 2 × 2 factorial design with three replicates, two storage conditions (hermetic big-bags with and without CO2 injection, i.e., a modified atmosphere and a controlled atmosphere, respectively) and two sampling positions (upper and medium). Two additional treatments were studied as controls: jute sacks and GrainPro sacks. The beans were qualitatively evaluated for their color and for their beverage quality attributes including their fragrance, sweetness, acidity, flavor, body and aftertaste. The beans packaged in hermetic big-bags with a CO2 injection maintained a specialty coffee classification. Impermeable packaging preserved the initial color of the coffee beans. Coffee storage in hermetic packaging preserves the desirable aromas of the coffee. The frequencies of the sweetness and acidity attributes were predominantly low for the coffees packaged in jute sacks. Undesirable flavors and aromas predominated in the coffees packaged in jute sacks. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Ribeiro J.S.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Augusto F.,University of Campinas | Salva T.J.G.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas | Ferreira M.M.C.,University of Campinas
Talanta | Year: 2012

In this work, soft modeling based on chemometric analyses of coffee beverage sensory data and the chromatographic profiles of volatile roasted coffee compounds is proposed to predict the scores of acidity, bitterness, flavor, cleanliness, body, and overall quality of the coffee beverage. A partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to construct the models. The ordered predictor selection (OPS) algorithm was applied to select the compounds for the regression model of each sensory attribute in order to take only significant chromatographic peaks into account. The prediction errors of these models, using 4 or 5 latent variables, were equal to 0.28, 0.33, 0.35, 0.33, 0.34 and 0.41, for each of the attributes and compatible with the errors of the mean scores of the experts. Thus, the results proved the feasibility of using a similar methodology in on-line or routine applications to predict the sensory quality of Brazilian Arabica coffee. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mazzafera P.,University of Campinas | Silvarolla M.B.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas
Seed Science Research | Year: 2010

Coffea arabica L. is highly homozygotic and caffeine content in most cultivars is reported to be similar (approximately 1%). The caffeine content was analysed using individual seeds of cultivars Catua Vermelho, Mundo Novo and Bourbon Vermelho, and varieties Mokka and Laurina of C. arabica. Seeds were cut transversely in half, a thin slice from each was extracted in a mixture of chloroform and methanol, and caffeine was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The extraction procedure was validated by comparison with two conventional methods less suited for analysing large numbers of seeds. The results revealed an unexpectedly large variation [Catua Vermelho: 3.72-25.9mgg-1 (seeds); Mundo Novo: 5.06-18.59mgg-1; Bourbon Vermelho: 6.76-16.59mgg-1] even in types naturally low in caffeine such as Laurina (1.17-9.97mgg-1) and Mokka (2.01-9.64mgg-1). The mean values for all cultivars were always in the range of the caffeine content found in the literature. Several studies showed that C. arabica has approximately 10% cross-pollination, but the variation observed in caffeine content in individual seeds was too large to be explained by cross-pollination. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

Bin A.,University of Campinas | Salles-Filho S.,University of Campinas | Capanema L.M.,Agronomic Institute of Campinas | Colugnati F.A.B.,Federal University of Juiz de fora
Scientometrics | Year: 2014

We investigated the extent to which different selection mechanisms for awarding scholarships varied in their short- and longer-term consequences in the performance of awardees in terms of scientific production. We conducted an impact evaluation study on undergraduate, master’s, and PhD research scholarships and compared two different financial sources in Brazil: in one, the selection mechanism was based on a peer review system; the other was based on an institutional system other than peer review. Over 8,500 questionnaires were successfully completed, covering the period 1995–2009. The two groups were compared in terms of their scientific performance using a propensity score approach. We found that the peer-reviewed scholarship awardees showed better performance: they published more often and in journals with higher impact factors than scholarship awardees from the other group. However, two other results indicate a different situation. First, over the long-term, awardees under the peer review system continued to increase their publication rate and published in higher-quality journals; however, the differences with the control group tended to diminish after PhD graduation. Second, the better performance of peer-reviewed scholarships was not observed in all subject areas. The main policy implications of this study relate to a better understanding of selection mechanisms and the heterogeneity regarding the relation between selection processes and scientific and academic output. © 2014, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

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