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Hirich A.,Agronomic and Veterinary Medicine Hassan II Institute | Choukr-Allah R.,Agronomic and Veterinary Medicine Hassan II Institute | Jacobsen S.-E.,Copenhagen University
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2014

Supplying organic matter under deficit irrigation conditions could be a practical solution to compensate the negative effect of water stress. For this purpose, studies in pea as a legume and quinoa as a new drought-tolerant crop were conducted in the south of Morocco between October 2011 and March 2012. Three organic matter levels (0, 5 and 10 t ha-1) were supplied as compost amendment combined with 2 irrigation levels (50 and 100% of full irrigation). The results indicate that stomatal conductance and dry matter have been affected significantly (P < 0.05) only by deficit irrigation, while harvested yield was affected significantly (P < 0.05) by both deficit irrigation and organic manure. The highest seed yields (3.3 t ha-1 for quinoa and 5.6 t ha-1 for pea) were recorded under full irrigation and 10 t ha-1 of compost. Results indicated that organic amendment of 10 t ha-1 and 5 t ha-1 significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased seed yield by 18 and 11% under stress conditions and by 13 and 3% under full irrigation for quinoa and by 24 and 11% under full irrigation and by 41 and 25% under water-deficit irrigation for pea. It can be concluded that organic amendment improved significantly yield and biomass production better under deficit irrigation conditions than under full irrigation. Combining deficit irrigation and organic amendment led to the maximization of crop water productivity. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source


Hirich A.,Agronomic and Veterinary Medicine Hassan II Institute | Choukr-Allah R.,Agronomic and Veterinary Medicine Hassan II Institute | Jacobsen S.-E.,Copenhagen University
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2014

One of the most important factors that limits crop production is the availability of water. Deficit irrigation is the most important irrigation strategy to increase water use efficiency and crop water productivity. Organic amendment combined with deficit irrigation can be practical solution to compensate the negative effect of water deficit through the improvement of soil water-holding capacity. This research was conducted in the south of Morocco (IAV-CHA, Agadir) between October 2011 and January 2012. The mean objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of organic matter and deficit irrigation with treated wastewater on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) productivity. Three organic matter levels (0, 5, and 10 t ha-1) have been supplied as compost amendment combined with two deficit irrigation levels (50 and 100% of full irrigation). Statistical analysis revealed very highly significant difference only between deficit irrigation treatments for most measured parameters. However, significant difference was obtained between organic matter treatments in terms of grain yield. The highest grain yield (66.3 g plant-1) has been recorded when quinoa was subjected to full irrigation and received 10 t ha-1 of compost; however, the lowest yields were obtained by treatments receiving 50% of full irrigation without organic matter supply. From the findings, it can be concluded that reducing irrigation requirement by half affected negatively quinoa growth and productivity and reduced grain yield by 36%, organic amendment improved significantly yield and biomass production better under deficit irrigation conditions. © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source


Hirich A.,Agronomic and Veterinary Medicine Hassan II Institute | Omari H.E.,Agronomic and Veterinary Medicine Hassan II Institute | Jacobsen S.-E.,Copenhagen University | Lamaddalena N.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute | And 4 more authors.
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2014

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the third most important food legume grown in the world and a favourite food crop in Morocco. Morocco is a semi-arid country with limited fresh water resources. In order to meet the food demand, increasing attention is being given to the use of non-conventional water resources such as saline/brackish water and treated waste water for irrigation. With this in mind, an experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to investigate the effect of irrigation with saline water on a local variety of chickpea. Irrigation with water of different salinity levels was carried out on pot experiments. Differences in water uptake and plant growth; as well as proline, soluble sugar, and Na+ and K+ contents of the plant were quantified. The results showed a negative relationship between increasing water salinity and most of the measured plant growth parameters. Irrigation water salinity has negatively affected growth and biomass accumulation and led to reduced grain yield, water uptake and water productivity. In contrast, proline, soluble sugars, Na+ and Na+: K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity. The findings highlighted the role of proline and soluble sugars as osmolytes produced by chickpea to mitigate the effect of salinity stress. The added value of these results is that the crop's responses to salinity are quantified. The obtained values can be used to determine 'threshold values'; should the salinity of the irrigation water go above these threshold values one may expect the crop yield parameters to be affected. The quantified responses also indicate the rate of change of yield parameters in response to the irrigation water salinity level. This could help in avoiding significant yield reduction when deciding on the irrigation water salinity level to be used for the studied chickpea variety. Source


Hirich A.,Agronomic and Veterinary Medicine Hassan II Institute | Jelloul A.,Agronomic and Veterinary Medicine Hassan II Institute | Choukr-Allah R.,Agronomic and Veterinary Medicine Hassan II Institute | Jacobsen S.-E.,Copenhagen University
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2014

A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P < 0.05) seedling rate and height and caused delay and reduction in seed emergence, quinoa was shown to be more resistant than chickpea. Dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index and crop water productivity were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by salinity where increasing salinity level led to decrease in dry biomass, root volume and seed yield for both quinoa and chickpea while increasing salinity resulted in increase - in the case of quinoa - and decrease - in the case of chickpea - in harvest index and crop water productivity. Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity, while K+ content decreased - in the case of quinoa - and increased - in the case of chickpea - with increasing salinity. Through this study, it was demonstrated that the salinity threshold in which seedling starts to be affected by salinity was equal to 2 and 8 dS m-1 for chickpea and quinoa, respectively. Quinoa was shown to be more resistant to salinity of all investigated parameters. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source


Hirich A.,Agronomic and Veterinary Medicine Hassan II Institute | Choukr-Allah R.,Agronomic and Veterinary Medicine Hassan II Institute | Jacobsen S.-E.,Copenhagen University
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2014

Quinoa is a highly nutritious food product, being cultivated for several thousand years in South America, and it is recently introduced in Morocco and showed a high potential of adaptation in Morocco. A field study was carried out in the south of Morocco in order to investigate the effects of sowing date on quinoa performance in a series of experiments conducted for adaptation of quinoa. The experiment took place in Agadir, with a test of 10 sowing dates, each 15 days from 1st November to 15th March. Sowing dates affected the growth and productivity due to differences in temperature, precipitation and radiation over the year. Highest seed yield and dry matter yield were obtained when quinoa sown in November and early December. The growing season length has been affected by accumulated radiation. In addition to abiotic factors (temperature, radiation, rainfall) affecting quinoa growth, biotic factors such as downy mildew and weeds affected the yield. Early sowing in November to early December secured good plant development when low temperatures occurred in January and February and downy mildew appeared in March. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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