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Colla P.,University of Turin | Garibaldi A.,University of Turin | Gullino M.L.,Agroinnova
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Soil-borne pathogens cause serious losses in vegetable crops, especially in intensive cultivation cropping systems. Soil disinfestation is usually carried out for their containment and it has been based for years on the use of methyl bromide, whose phasing-out under the Montreal Protocol has been enabled by the presence of alternative products, such as 1,3-dichloropropene, chloropicrin and methyl isothiocyanate generators. The re-evaluation of pesticides which took place under the European Directive 91/414/EEC on Plant Protection Products dramatically reduced the arsenal of available fumigants in the Italian and European scenario and some phytopathological problems became difficult to manage. The European regulation 1107/2009, concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market introduced the evaluation of crop protection products through hazard-based cut-off criteria, resulting in the loss of active ingredients, with additional impact on the registration of novel products. The Directive 2009/128/EC, establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides, imposes practices and uses of pesticides that will strongly affect soilborne disease management in the future. Starting in 2014 all professional users have to implement the general principles of IPM, non-chemical methods must be preferred and the pesticides applied shall have the least side effects on non-target organisms and the environment. The search for effective, economically and environmentally sound methods for soil disinfestation remains a continuous and challenging task for industry, growers and researchers.

Du Fretay G.,AREFLH | Dasque J.,AREFLH | Auger J.,CRITT Innophyt | Coosemans J.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Objective of this project was to set up and implement a coordination framework improving the delivery of sustainable alternatives in countries where Methyl Bromide is essential and more especially where the critical uses requested by member states are the higher. This European project (Framework Programme Priority 8.1 Policy-oriented research Thematic Priority: agriculture and forestry management contract n°022660) was coordinated by AREFLH (Assemblee des Regions Europeennes Fruitieres Legumieres et Horticoles) from September 2006 to October 2008. Alterbromide produced the following actions: review reports of MB alternatives in Europe, good fumigation practice guides and technical leaflets, training courses, local open-days, national conferences, papers, participation at international conferences, website dissemination www.alterbromide.org. This project contributed to the replacement of Methyl bromide by existing alternatives like grafting and chemical alternatives and contributed to the development of new suitable alternatives like solarization, biofumigation, dimethyl disulfide, integrated pest management solutions including methods of diagnosis.

Colla P.,University of Turin | Gilardi G.,University of Turin | Garibaldi A.,University of Turin | Pugliese M.,Agroinnova | Gullino M.L.,Agroinnova
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The project "Sustainable use of chemical fumigants for the control of soilborne pathogens in the horticultural sector", funded by the LIFE+ financial instrument of the European Community, has been carried out from 2010 to 2012 by a consortium of five institutions from three EU countries: Italy, Poland and Greece. The project aimed at encouraging a lower input of pesticides, by applying IPM principles to the management of chemical fumigants, thus supporting the EU policy for achieving a sustainable use of pesticides. Demonstration trials have been conducted in 24 sites covering a total of 9 regions in three Project Countries. The use of VIF films, rootstocks, and inoculation with beneficial soil microorganisms was associated to reduced doses of chemical fumigants. Alternative methods included use of biocontrol agents, Brassica spp. meals, compost, soil solarisation and fumigation with active steam. The project adopted a participatory approach in technology transfer activities (training, dissemination) based on the involvement of stakeholders, including growers, technical advisors, fumigators, researchers, policymakers and agrochemical companies.

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