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Davis, CA, United States

Conner P.J.,University of Georgia | MacLean D.,Agrofresh
HortScience | Year: 2013

Anthocyanin content and composition and CIE 1976 (L*, a*, b*) color space (CIELAB) color coordinates were examined for the skin of 22 muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) cultivars and Muscadinia Planch germplasm. Analysis of berry skin extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determined that anthocyanin content varied from less than 100 μg·g-1 in bronze and pink berries to over 5500 μg·g-1 in highly pigmented black berries. The anthocyanins delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and malvidin were detected in their 3,5-diglucosidic forms. Analysis of berry color with a colorimeter revealed chroma (C*) ranged from 2.4 to 22.8 with the highest values occurring in bronze- and red-colored berries. As anthocyanin concentration increased, lightness (L*) decreased to a low of 20 to 23 in black-colored berries. Pink and red skin colors were primarily a result of lower levels of total anthocyanins, although there was also a shift away from delphinidin and petunidin production toward more cyanidin and peonidin. Malvidin, the most important anthocyanin for muscadine wine and juice color stability, was only abundant in a few clones, all of which had V. munsoniana (Simpson ex Munson) Small or V. popenoei (Fennell) Small in their pedigree. The interspecific hybrid 'Fennell's 3-way Hybrid' had the largest proportion of malvidin, contributing ≈58% of the total anthocyanin content. This clone also had low levels of delphinidin and high total levels of anthocyanin, making it a promising source for the improvement of muscadine grape pigment profiles.

Manriquez D.A.,Agrofresh | Munoz-Robredo P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Gudenschwager O.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Robledo P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Defilippi B.G.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2014

Flavor is one of the most important attributes of fresh fruit for the consumer, and is affected by several factors, including genotype, maturity stage, and environmental conditions. Flavor-related metabolites were characterized in two important cherimoya varieties, cv. Concha Lisa and cv. Bronceada, during fruit ripening. The most important sugars present were glucose, fructose and sucrose, and only fructose and glucose increased during ripening. The most important acids were tartaric, malic and citric acids, and all increased as ripening progressed. Overall aroma profile was mainly determined by esters and terpenes in both varieties. Ester compounds such as ethyl hexanoate, butyl butyrate and hexyl propanoate increased during ripening. The activity of alcohol acyl transferase also increased during fruit ripening concomitant with ester accumulation. Terpenes, such as α and β-pinene, showed a reduction during ripening, whereas others, such as myrcene and limonene, increased. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Boyhan G.E.,University of Georgia | MacLean D.,Agrofresh | Bateman A.G.,Vidalia Onion Research Laboratory | Tate S.,Horticulture Farm
International Journal of Vegetable Science | Year: 2012

Pumpkins are difficult to produce for fall markets in the southeastern United States. Diseases, particularly aphid (Myzus persicae and Aphis spp.)-transmitted virus diseases, make fall pumpkin production difficult. Controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage may offer a method of overcoming this problem by using spring- or summer-produced pumpkins held in CA storage for fall sales. The objective of this study was to evaluate CA storage of pumpkins from spring and summer production. Pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L.) were stored under ambient conditions (≈ 70-90°F, ≈ 40%-60% relative humidity [RH]) and CA conditions (3% O 2, 5% CO 2, 50°F, and 60% RH) to compare postharvest storage and shelf life. Pumpkins stored under CA conditions had significantly less damage than pumpkins stored under ambient conditions. There were significantly more marketable fruit after CA storage. Cultivar did not affect results. Although there were differences between storage methods, CA-stored pumpkins still had significant loss due to fungal pathogen activity. In 2007, 14% of pumpkins from CA storage were unmarketable fruit, with an additional 55% showing some damage. In 2008, 40% of pumpkins stored under CA conditions were unmarketable. Additional steps including surface sanitization would likely be required prior to widespread adoption of this technology. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

SmartFresh SM (1-MCP) has demonstrated its efficacy when used for pear storage, but with the potential issue, on some cultivars or with early harvests, of delaying the softening of fruit during shelf life. Two useful tools to deliver quality pears overcoming this issue of hard fruit are herewith presented, namely temperature management during storage (which implies also lower energy input) and application of low doses of ethylene together with 1-MCP. Results are presented from trials in European countries and South Africa. Preliminary positive results have been obtained when increasing the storage temperature from-0.5 up to 1.5°C on 'Abbé Fétel', 'Conference' and 'Blanquilla' cultivars, and using commercial doses of 1-MCP applied in the ratio of 1:0.5 to 1:2 with ethylene on 'Conference' and 'Packham's Triumph' cultivars. Both tools delivered fruit which softened according to market requirements, while keeping the expected high quality including the reduction of superficial scald and bruising, whenever present.

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