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Borrego-Benjumea A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Borrego-Benjumea A.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Basallote-Ureba M.J.,IFAPA Centro Las Torres Tomejil | Abbasi P.A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2014

Organic soil amendments play important roles in the reduction of plant diseases caused by soil-borne plant pathogens. This study examined the combined effects of concentrations of organic amendments, temperature and period of incubation in soil on the management of Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol). In an experiment with substrate mixture, Fol reduction was higher when the soils were incubated at 35°C than at 30°C. Disease severity was proportionally reduced as the volume of amendment added increased. Furthermore, disease was significantly lower in substrates incubated for 30-days at both temperatures, as compared to substrates incubated for only 15-days. The most effective control was achieved with pelletised poultry manure (PPM). In experiments with natural sandy soil, the effects of amendments on Fol populations, measured by real-time quantitative PCR with TaqMan probes, were significant. The highest decreases in Fol DNA resulted when the soil was amended with 2% PPM and incubated at 35°C. The reductions in DNA concentrations was most likely related to the accumulations of high concentrations of NH3 (27.3-mM) in soils treated with 2% PPM and incubated at room temperature (RT; 23-±-2°C), or at 35°C. Severity of plants grown in soils incubated at RT decreased by over 40%, and more than 73% when incubated at 35°C, regardless of the rate of PPM. The results indicate that the management with PPM, when combined with heating or solarisation, is an effective control measure against Fusarium wilt of tomato. © 2014 Association of Applied Biologists.

Wang K.,Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation | Wang K.,Agroecology Research Services Center | Senthil-Kumar M.,Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation | Ryu C.-M.,Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation | And 3 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2012

Bacterial pathogens colonize a host plant by growing between the cells by utilizing the nutrients present in apoplastic space. While successful pathogens manipulate the plant cell membrane to retrieve more nutrients from the cell, the counteracting plant defense mechanism against nonhost pathogens to restrict the nutrient efflux into the apoplast is not clear. To identify the genes involved in nonhost resistance against bacterial pathogens, we developed a virus-induced gene-silencing-based fastforward genetics screen in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing of N. benthamiana SQUALENE SYNTHASE, a key gene in phytosterol biosynthesis, not only compromised nonhost resistance to few pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas campestris, but also enhanced the growth of the host pathogen P. syringae pv tabaci by increasing nutrient efflux into the apoplast. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sterol methyltransferase mutant (sterol methyltransferase2) involved in sterol biosynthesis also compromised plant innate immunity against bacterial pathogens. The Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 CYP710A1, which encodes C22-sterol desaturase that converts b-sitosterol to stigmasterol, was dramatically induced upon inoculation with nonhost pathogens. An Arabidopsis Atcyp710A1 null mutant compromised both nonhost and basal resistance while overexpressors of AtCYP710A1 enhanced resistance to host pathogens. Our data implicate the involvement of sterols in plant innate immunity against bacterial infections by regulating nutrient efflux into the apoplast. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Rojas C.M.,Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation | Senthil-Kumar M.,Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation | Wang K.,Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation | Wang K.,Agroecology Research Services Center | And 4 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2012

In contrast to gene-for-gene disease resistance, nonhost resistance governs defense responses to a broad range of potential pathogen species. To identify specific genes involved in the signal transduction cascade associated with nonhost disease resistance, we used a virus-induced gene-silencing screen in Nicotiana benthamiana, and identified the peroxisomal enzyme glycolate oxidase (GOX) as an essential component of nonhost resistance. GOX-silenced N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana GOX T-DNA insertion mutants are compromised for nonhost resistance. Moreover, Arabidopsis gox mutants have lower H2O2 accumulation, reduced callose deposition, and reduced electrolyte leakage upon inoculation with hypersensitive response-causing nonhost pathogens. Arabidopsis gox mutants were not affected in NADPH oxidase activity, and silencing of a gene encoding NADPH oxidase (Respiratory burst oxidase homolog) in the gox mutants did not further increase susceptibility to nonhost pathogens, suggesting that GOX functions independently from NADPH oxidase. In the two gox mutants examined (haox2 and gox3), the expression of several defense-related genes upon nonhost pathogen inoculation was decreased compared with wild-type plants. Here we show that GOX is an alternative source for the production of H 2O 2 during both gene-for-gene and nonhost resistance responses. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Turnbull A.L.,University of Calgary | Turnbull A.L.,Agroecology Research Services Center | Kim W.,University of Calgary | Kim W.,University of Oxford | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2012

The sdiA gene encodes for a LuxR-type transcription factor, which is active when bound to N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Because Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium does not produce AHLs, SdiA senses signals produced by other organisms. SdiA is not expressed constitutively, and response is limited to conditions in which elevated expression occurs, but little is known about the regulation of sdiA expression. Here we map the sdiA promoter and define several regulators that directly or indirectly act on the promoter. The major activator of sdiA expression is cAMP-receptor protein (CRP), and we define the CRP operator in the sdiA promoter using promoter and crp mutants. LeuO activates sdiA expression to a lesser extent than does CRP. We demonstrate that LeuO directly binds the sdiA promoter and the Rcs phosphorelay represses sdiA expression. In this study, NhaR, IlvY, and Fur affected sdiA expression indirectly and weakly. Expression in late-stationary phase depended on RpoS. AHL-dependent expression of the SdiA-regulated gene rck correlated to the observed sdiA transcriptional changes in regulator mutants. The data demonstrate that regulation of sdiA involves integration of multiple environmental and metabolic signals.

Johnston-Monje D.,University of Guelph | Johnston-Monje D.,Symbiota | Lundberg D.S.,Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology | Lazarovits G.,Agroecology Research Services Center | And 2 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2016

Background and aims: To assess the impacts of soil microbes and plant genotype on the composition of maize associated bacterial communities. Methods: Two genotypes of Brazilian maize were planted indoors on sterile sand, a deep underground subsoil, and a nutrient-rich topsoil from the Amazon jungle (terra preta). DNA was extracted from rhizospheres, phyllospheres, and surface sterilized roots for 16S rDNA fingerprinting and next generation sequencing. Results: Neither plant genotype nor soil type appeared to influence bacterial diversity in phyllospheres or endospheres. Rhizospheres showed strikingly similar 16S rDNA ordination of both fingerprinting and sequencing data, with soil type driving grouping patterns and genotype having a significant impact only on sterile sand. Rhizospheres grown in non-sterile soils contained greater bacterial diversity than sterile-sand grown ones, however the dominant OTUs (species of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes) were found in all rhizospheres suggesting seeds as a common source of inoculum. Rhizospheres of the commercial hybrid appeared to contain less bacterial diversity than the landrace. Conclusions: Maize rhizospheres receive diverse bacteria from soil, are influenced by the genotype or treatment of the seed, and are dominated by species of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. As many dominant 16S rDNA sequences were observed in rhizospheres grown in both sterile and non-sterile substrate, we conclude that the most common bacterial cells in juvenile maize rhizospheres are seed transmitted. © 2016 The Author(s)

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