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Ganeva G.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Korzun V.,KWS LOCHOW GMBH | Landjeva S.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Popova Z.,Institute For Plant Genetic Resources Kmalkov | Christov N.K.,Agrobioinstitute Dragan Tsankov Blvd.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2010

The genetic diversity in a Triticum durum Desf. collection, consisting of 102 Bulgarian landraces, nine Bulgarian and 25 introduced cultivars was studied using 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. A total of 100 alleles were identified, with an average of 7. 14 alleles per marker. The gene diversity values (He) of the markers for the total samples ranged from 0.23 (WMS357 and WMS631) to 0.77 (WMS46), with an average of 0.52. Within the landraces that were collected from 18 sites in Southern Bulgaria showed 2-11 alleles per locus with an average of 6.07. The microsatellite analysis suggests that the genetic diversity among landraces is lower compared to the diversity levels for durum wheat in countries close to the main centers of wheat domestication. Breeding activities have caused significant reduction of the allelic polymorphism, elimination of rare alleles, and increase in the number of common alleles and the frequency of dominating alleles. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009. Source

Njontie C.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Foueillassar X.,ARVALIS Institute du vegetal | Christov N.K.,Agrobioinstitute Dragan Tsankov Blvd. | Husken A.,Julius Kuhn Institute
Euphytica | Year: 2011

Recently, the introduction of GM maize in agricultural production in the EU and elsewhere has raised the issue of adventitious presence of GM seeds in conventional seed lots. Adventitious presence may occur in all arable farming, and at any step in the production of seeds or grain, or in processing of harvested product in the food/feed chain. As of today, there are no official thresholds governing the adventitious presence of GM seeds in conventional seed lots in Europe. However, it is assumed that GM admixture in seed lots could have a considerable influence on the level of adventitious presence in the non-GM harvested product. The experiments highlighted in this paper aim at the consequences of adventitious presence of GM maize seeds in conventional seed lots. It is shown for varieties belonging to the same maturity group that the final GM rate (% seeds) in the harvest product is nearly same as the initial seed admixture (% seeds). This corresponds to Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The variation depends mainly on the flowering coincidence, the site and climatic conditions. In cases where the admixed seeds are of different maturity group, the level of cross-pollination in the harvest product is reduced. Furthermore a comparison between the visual GM seed detection and real-time PCR detection was done. It is evident that the result of the real-time PCR detection method has a more variable uncertainty associated with its results than the visual seed testing method. The accuracy of prediction from % GM seed to % GM DNA depends on the reference material used for calibration curves. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Munsch M.A.,Universitatstrasse 2 | Stamp P.,Universitatstrasse 2 | Christov N.K.,Agrobioinstitute Dragan Tsankov Blvd. | Foueillassar X.M.,ARVALIS Institute du vegetal | And 3 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2010

Maize (Zea mays L.) Plus-Hybrids are a blend of cytoplasmic malesterile (CMS) hybrids and unrelated male-fertile hybrids ensuring pollination of the whole stand. Combining potential benefits of male sterility (CMS effect) and allopollination (xenia effect), they often outperform the corresponding male-fertile sib-pollinated hybrids in terms of yield. The combining abilities of five CMS hybrids and eight pollinators were investigated in a factorial split-plot design in 12 environments in four countries and two years. The plant material from different breeders represented the three types of malesterile cytoplasm. Plus-Hybrids increased grain yield, on average, by 10% or more and by up to 20% in specific environments. Three highly responsive CMS hybrids and four generally good pollinators were identified. The Plus-Hybrid effect affected both yield components, CMS leading mainly to a higher number of kernels (KN) and the xenia effect mainly to an increase in the thousand kernel weight (TKW). Despite some differences in the response of the three types of CMS, the effect of the cytoplasm was not significant. While the CMS effect depended strongly on environment, the xenia was consistent in all environments but its extent varied. As well as increasing yield, we can expect that Plus-Hybrids can make a large contribution to the coexistence of transgenic and conventional maize by biocontainment, that is, eliminating or reducing the release of transgenic pollen in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize or herbicide-tolerant (HT) maize. © Crop Science Society of America. Source

Marchev A.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Georgiev V.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Ivanov I.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Badjakov I.,Agrobioinstitute Dragan Tsankov Blvd. | Pavlov A.,Bulgarian Academy of Science
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2011

Hairy root cultures of Salvia tomentosa were initiated by transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. To prevent necrosis in the explants and to protect young hairy roots, Amberlite XAD-4 resin, in combination with a temporary immersion cultivation system, was applied. HPLC analyzes showed that the resin adsorbed more than 93% of the released phenolic acids and 100% of the released flavonoids. The decreased content of the released phenolics significantly reduced their destructive effects on the plant tissues, prevented, and speeded up the appearance of hairy roots. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Rusanov K.,Agrobioinstitute Dragan Tsankov Blvd. | Kovacheva N.,Essential Medical | Rusanova M.,Agrobioinstitute Dragan Tsankov Blvd. | Atanassov I.,Agrobioinstitute Dragan Tsankov Blvd.
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2012

Methyl eugenol (ME) is a naturally occurring carcinogenic compound found in a number of essential oils including rose oil distilled from Rosa damascena Mill flowers. In the current study, we evaluate the effect of flower harvesting practices on the ME content in the produced rose oil. The obtained results show nearly twice reduction in ME content in the rose oil distilled from petals of full-blown flowers. At the same time, GC/MS analysis of rose oils distilled from stages 3 and 4 rose flower buds (flower buds prior opening of petals) showed more than 5 times ME reduction and preservation of the relative content of the major rose oil compounds. Moreover, the comparative study of rose flower yield and rose oil content of rose buds and full-blown flowers showed that harvesting of rose flower buds results in above three times increase in the formed flower buds from the studied rose plants and more than twice increase in the rose flower and rose oil yields for the same rose plantation areas. The overall results from this study allow us to propose a change in the traditional full-blown rose flower harvesting to harvesting of rose flower buds at stages 3 and 4 during the entire flowering period. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

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