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Bharathi B.,Agro Pulping Machinery P Ltd. | Karthik R.,Agro Pulping Machinery P Ltd. | Salil D.,Agro Pulping Machinery P Ltd.
IPPTA: Quarterly Journal of Indian Pulp and Paper Technical Association | Year: 2013

With increasing demand for paper and paperboard, paper mills have embarked on expansion plans. As per pollution control norms the expansion plans need to include increase in capacity in Chemical Recovery area for processing the black liquor and lime mud. In this paper the focus is on the lime mud re-burning system that is currently employed in the Indian pulp mills, namely lime kilns. This technology has high installed and operating costs even for large pulp mills. The authors are proposing a Fluidized Bed Calciner as a cost effective and viable alternative for lime kiln. The major advantage of this technology is that even small and medium pulp mills can avail of this system as the installed and operating costs are significantly lower than that of lime kiln. The technology does not suffer from the disadvantages of silica in the lime mud that plagues lime kiln operation. With fewer moving and rotating parts this system reduces the downtime significantly. Along with comparison of this technology with lime kiln, the paper addresses the mass and energy balances for a typical system, its economics and the impact of 100% alternative fuel for its operation.

Karthik R.,Agro Pulping Machinery P Ltd. | Salil D.,Agro Pulping Machinery P Ltd.
IPPTA: Quarterly Journal of Indian Pulp and Paper Technical Association | Year: 2012

Fluidized Bed Technology has been successfully implemented in recovering soda ash from black liquor for a number of pulp mills in India. Agro Pulping Machinery (Agro) has extended this technology to produce steam and power for medium size pulp mills as well as close the chemical recovery loop to produce white liquor and reburn lime mud. With increasing cost of caustic (INR 32/kg), it becomes more cost effective to produce green liquor from the output of the Fluidized Bed Incinerator for black liquor. This green liquor can be converted by conventional means of causticizers and slakers, into white liquor to be reused in pulp cooking process. However, the resulting lime mud is a pollutant and the new process proposed here is to tackle it by using a calciner based on fluidized bed (FB) technology. Since the major cost of the calciner is fuel, Agro's design includes a closed coupled biomass gasifier that supplies the fuel for burning the lime. The FB calciner produces lime at high purity and efficiency that can be reused in the recausticizing process of the green liquor. In this fashion, we can close the chemical recovery loop by installing a complete soda and lime cycle using fluidized bed technology fueled by biomass gasifier.

Raghavan K.,SimAgro Inc. | Raghavan K.,Agro Pulping Machinery P Ltd | Mudigonda D.,SimAgro Inc. | Mudigonda D.,Agro Pulping Machinery P Ltd | And 2 more authors.
IPPTA: Quarterly Journal of Indian Pulp and Paper Technical Association | Year: 2010

With GDP growth for India projected to be 7%-9% annually for the next several years, the demand for growth in every sector including the Indian pulp and paper is inevitable. However, with ever increasing demand on pollution controls, the paper industry in India has been looking to grow within the bounds on environmental compliance. Gone are the days when Pulp Mills could discard black liquor or spent lime mud into landfills. Another looming environmental aspect is the generation of green house gases (GHG) in the manufacturing process. The Copenhagen summit in 2009 has put the focus on green house gases or GHG, and has asked all nations to curb its emissions of these gases especially CO 2, Methane and NO x. In this paper we examine technologies that address all these aspects - increased pulp production, stringent environment regulations on black liquor and lime mud as well as GHG mitigation. Some of these technologies were developed for large pulp mills and for virgin wood pulping, and cannot be directly adopted for Indian industry where the capacities are much smaller and the feed stock is varied (Bagasse, wheat & rice straw, etc). Along with technology discussions, we would be illustrating the impact using complex computer models and simulations of these systems that compute mass, heat and chemical balances along with return of investment or ROI impacts. Our aim is to highlight the process changes and improved technology that Indian paper industry could adopt to address the need for increased pulp production within the bounds of environmental compliance and reduced GHG emissions, and yet do all of this in an economic fashion that benefits both the industry and environment.

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