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Thiverval-Grignon, France

AgroParisTech is a French university-level institution, also known as a "Grande Ecole". It was founded on January 1, 2007, by the merger of three graduate institutes of science and engineering: Institut national agronomique Paris-Grignon , founded in 1826 École nationale du génie rural, des eaux et des forêts , known in English as the French National School of Forestry, established in 1964 École nationale supérieure des industries agricoles et alimentaires , founded in 1893AgroParisTech is a member of the UniverSud Paris and the Paris Institute of Technology . The latter is a consortium of ten graduate institutes of science and engineering.AgroParisTech is also part of 'The Life and Environmental Science and Technology Hub' of the Paris region, together with INRA, Cemagref, AFSSA, the Ecole nationale vétérinaire d'Alfort, and the Versailles National School of Landscape architecture.Leader in life science and agronomy, AgroParisTech is one of the foremost and most prestigious Grandes Ecoles.AgroParisTech is one of the founding members of the Université Paris-Saclay cluster, which will be the largest European multidisciplinary campus. AgroParisTech will consequently be moving to the Plateau de Saclay in 2018. Wikipedia.

Hofte H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Hofte H.,Agro ParisTech
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2015

Understanding how developmental and environmental signals control plant cell expansion requires an intimate knowledge of the architecture of the primary cell wall and the chemo-rheological processes that underlie cell wall relaxation. In this review I discuss recent findings that reveal a more prominent role than previously suspected for covalent bonds and pectin cross-links in primary cell wall architecture. In addition, genetic studies have uncovered a role for receptor kinases in the control of cell wall homeostasis in growing cells. The emerging view is that, upon cell wall disruption, compensatory changes are induced in the cell wall through the interplay between the brassinosteroid signaling module, which positively regulates wall extensibility and receptor kinases of the CrRLKL1 family, which may act as negative regulators of cell wall stiffness. These findings lift the tip of the veil of a complex signaling network allowing normal homeostasis in walls of growing cells but also crisis management under stress conditions. © The Author 2014.

Berger N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Dubreucq B.,Agro ParisTech
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms | Year: 2012

Chromatin-associated proteins (CAP) play a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression and development in higher organisms. They are involved in the control of chromatin structure and dynamics. CAP have been extensively studied over the past years and are classified into two major groups: enzymes that modify histone stability and organization by post-translational modification of histone N-Terminal tails; and proteins that use ATP hydrolysis to modify chromatin structure. All of these proteins show a relatively high degree of sequence conservation across the animal and plant kingdoms. The essential Drosophila melanogaster GAGA factor (dGAF) interacts with these two types of CAP to regulate homeobox genes and thus contributes to a wide range of developmental events. Surprisingly, however, it is not conserved in plants. In this review, following an overview of fly GAF functions, we discuss the role of plant BBR/BPC proteins. These appear to functionally converge with dGAF despite a completely divergent amino acid sequence. Some suggestions are given for further investigation into the function of BPC proteins in plants. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Even P.C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Nadkarni N.A.,Agro ParisTech
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2012

In this article, we review some fundamentals of indirect calorimetry in mice and rats, and open the discussion on several debated aspects of the configuration and tuning of indirect calorimeters. On the particularly contested issue of adjustment of energy expenditure values for body size and body composition, we discuss several of the most used methods and their results when tested on a previously published set of data. We conclude that neither body weight (BW), exponents of BW, nor lean body mass (LBM) are sufficient. The best method involves fitting both LBM and fat mass (FM) as independent variables; for low sample sizes, the model LBM + 0.2 FM can be very effective. We also question the common calorimetry design that consists of measuring respiratory exchanges under free-feeding conditions in several cages simultaneously. This imposes large intervals between measures, and generally limits data analysis to mean 24 h or day-night values of energy expenditure. These are then generally compared with energy intake. However, we consider that, among other limitations, the measurements of V̇O2, V̇CO2, and food intake are not precise enough to allow calculation of energy balance in the small 2-5% range that can induce significant long-term alterations of energy balance. In contrast, we suggest that it is necessary to work under conditions in which temperature is set at thermoneutrality, food intake totally controlled, activity precisely measured, and data acquisition performed at very high frequency to give access to the part of the respiratory exchanges that are due to activity. In these conditions, it is possible to quantify basal energy expenditure, energy expenditure associated with muscular work, and response to feeding or to any other metabolic challenge. This reveals defects in the control of energy metabolism that cannot be observed from measurements of total energy expenditure in free feeding individuals. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.

Yvan-Charvet L.,Columbia University | Quignard-Boulange A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Quignard-Boulange A.,Agro ParisTech
Kidney International | Year: 2011

Obesity is a leading cause of death worldwide because of its associated inflammatory disorders such as hypertension, cardiovascular and kidney diseases, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and certain types of cancer. Adipose tissue expresses all components of the renin-angiotensin system necessary to generate angiotensin (Ang) peptides for local function. The angiotensin type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors mediate the effect of Ang II and recent studies have shown that both receptors may modulate fat mass expansion through upregulation of adipose tissue lipogenesis (AT2) and downregulation of lipolysis (AT1). Thus, both receptors may have synergistic and additive effects to promote the storage of lipid in adipose tissue in response to the nutrient environment. The production of angiotensinogen (AGT) by adipose tissue in rodents also contributes to one third of the circulating AGT levels. Increased adipose tissue AGT production in the obese state may be responsible in part for the metabolic and inflammatory disorders associated with obesity. This supports the notion that besides the traditional role of Ang II produced by the liver in the control of blood pressure, Ang II produced by the adipose tissue may more accurately reflect the role of this hormone in the regulation of fat mass and associated disorders. © 2011 International Society of Nephrology.

Yoshimoto K.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Yoshimoto K.,Agro ParisTech
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2012

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular process for the vacuolar degradation of cytoplasmic components. There is no doubt that autophagy is very important to plant life, especially because plants are immobile and must survive in environmental extremes. Early studies of autophagy provided our first insights into the structural characteristics of the process in plants, but for a long time the molecular mechanisms and the physiological roles of autophagy were not understood. Genetic analyses of autophagy in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have greatly expanded our knowledge of the molecular aspects of autophagy in plants as well as in animals. Until recently our knowledge of plant autophagy was in its infancy compared with autophagy research in yeast and animals, but recent efforts by plant researchers have made many advances in our understanding of plant autophagy. Here I will introduce an overview of autophagy in plants, present current findings and discuss the physiological roles of self-degradation. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

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