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Canneva G.,AGRO PARIS Technology | Guerin-Schneider L.,IRSTEA
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2011

Performance assessment has recently been applied to water utilities in France. Performance indicators (PIs) were initially developed as an aid to the control of public service delegation by local authorities. After a long process, a group of PIs was integrated into mandatory annual reports on service quality and price, in order to better inform utility users and reinforce the regulation of the sector by local public authorities. As water utilities in France are highly fragmented, this development in isolation may have only limited effects. The additional comparison of performance is likely to improve service quality and efficiency and keep prices affordable. The French national agency for water (ONEMA) - created in 2006 - is in charge of building the monitoring system of water utility performance. This paper presents the objectives of this monitoring system, the methodology used to create it and its shortcomings. Due to the large number of utilities, the data collection process faces difficulties. Some conclusions are drawn on how to obtain stronger involvement of local authorities. © IWA Publishing 2011. Source


Shahzad T.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Chenu C.,AGRO PARIS Technology | Repincay C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Mougin C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Grazing or mowing is central to the management of grasslands and may alter mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil carbon (C) stocks. Some studies have shown grazing-induced reductions in total soil respiration suggesting decreases in SOM mineralization. However, it has also been suggested that grazing may increase SOM mineralization, based on observations of increased soluble C, microbial biomass and mineral nitrogen (N) in soil after clipping. No studies to date have directly measured SOM mineralization to determine the effects of grazing on SOM mineralization and the underlying mechanisms. We examined the effect of clipping on soil-derived CO 2 efflux (Rs) for six gramineae and one leguminous species typical of temperate grasslands. Continuous 13C labeling of monocultures coupled with a new method of directly measuring Rs and the rhizosphere priming effect (RPE i.e. Rs from planted soils minus respiration from bare soils) in perennial herbaceous plants was used. For a model species, Lolium perenne, the clipping effects on aboveground biomass production, mineral N and soluble C in soil, microbial biomass and microbial community composition were also quantified. We found that clipping decreased the RPE and Rs (SOM mineralization) within 48 hours for all the studied species. For Lolium perenne, this reduced SOM mineralization persisted for one month after clipping. Moreover, clipping reduced the production of aboveground biomass and the total N assimilated by the plants. These changes increased N availability in soil and induced shifts in the soil microbial community structure favoring gram positive bacteria (i16:0) over saprophytic fungi (18:2ω6). The strong correlation of fungi (18:2ω6) with Rs across treatments suggests that saprophytic fungi play a key role in SOM mineralization. In conclusion, our study shows that plant clipping decelerates SOM mineralization and induces shifts in microbial community structure, most likely as an indirect effect of clipping on plant N uptake. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Hebel P.,INA PG Agro Paris Technology CREDOC | Pilorin T.,AGRO PARIS Technology
Cahiers de Nutrition et de Dietetique | Year: 2012

The speech marked the food more and more a fundamental divide. First, a functional vision restricted feeding health. Power is medicalized and becomes a personal matter, probably under the influence of Anglo-Saxon and Protestant, which allows the individual some freedom from his choices. Maintenance decisions tend to focus not on gastronomic or symbolic reasons, but on medical grounds. A phenomenon of individualization is at work in the food. Between 1988 and 2007, changes in mental representations of eating well and has greatly progressed from a diet-friendly food to health. The question that remains unanswered is that of behavioral changes related to the reduction of cultural transmission consecutive changes representations?. © 2012 Société française de nutrition. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source


Lemaire V.,Orange S.A. | Ismaili O.A.,Orange S.A. | Cornuejols A.,AGRO PARIS Technology
Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks | Year: 2015

Over the last years, researchers have focused their attention on a new approach, supervised clustering, that combines the main characteristics of both traditional clustering and supervised classification tasks. Motivated by the importance of the initialization in the traditional clustering context, this paper explores to what extent supervised initialization step could help traditional clustering to obtain better performances on supervised clustering tasks. This paper reports experiments which show that the simple proposed approach yields a good solution together with significant reduction of the computational cost. © 2015 IEEE. Source


Alletto L.,Purpan Engineering School | Coquet Y.,AGRO PARIS Technology | Bergheaud V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Benoit P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

Laboratory incubations were performed in order to evaluate the dissipation of the proherbicide isoxaflutole in seedbed layer soil samples from conventional and conservation tillage systems and in maize and oat residues left at the soil surface under conservation tillage. The effects of temperature and water pressure head on radiolabelled isoxaflutole degradation were studied for each sample for 21d. Mineralisation of isoxaflutole was low for all samples and ranged from 0.0% to 0.9% of applied 14C in soil samples and from 0.0% to 2.4% of applied 14C in residue samples. In soil samples, degradation half-life of isoxaflutole ranged from 9 to 26h, with significantly higher values under conservation tillage. In residue samples, degradation half-life ranged from 3 to 31h, with significantly higher values in maize residues, despite a higher mineralisation and bound residue formation than in oat residues. Whatever the sample, most of the applied 14C remained extractable during the experiment and, after 21d, less than 15% of applied 14C were unextractable. This extractable fraction was composed of diketonitrile, benzoic acid derivative and several unidentified metabolites, with one of them accounting for more than 17% of applied 14C. This study showed that tillage system design, including crop residues management, could help reducing the environmental impacts of isoxaflutole. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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