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Hani H.,University Putra Malaysia | Ibrahim T.A.T.,University Putra Malaysia | Othman A.M.,Agro Biotechnology Institute Malaysia | Lila M.-A.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Bt Allaudin Z.N.,University Putra Malaysia

Background: Insufficient availability of human donors makes the search for alternative source of islet cells mandatory for future developments in pancreatic transplantation. The present study investigates the potential of caprine as an alternative source of pancreatic islets. The objectives of the study were to optimize techniques for caprine islet isolation and purification for culture establishment, and to subsequently assess their viable and functional potential. Methods: Caprine pancreatic tissues were collected from a local slaughterhouse and prior transported to the laboratory by maintaining the cold chain. Islets were obtained by a collagenase-based digestion and optimized isolation technique. Islet cell purity and viability were determined by dithizone and trypan blue staining, respectively. Islet clusters of different sizes were positively identified by staining methods and demonstrated 90% viability in the culture system. Following static incubation, an in vitro insulin secretion assay was carried out and analyzed by ELISA. Results: The islets remained satisfactorily viable for 5 days in the culture system following regular media changes. The current study has successfully optimized the isolation, purification and culture maintenance of caprine islets. Conclusion: The successful yield, viability and functionality of islets isolated from the optimized protocol provide promising potential as an alternative source of islets for diabetes and transplantation researches. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Hani H.,University Putra Malaysia | Nazariah Allaudin Z.,University Putra Malaysia | Mohd-Lila M.-A.,University Putra Malaysia | Sarsaifi K.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.

Background Pancreatic islets are composed of different hormone-secreting cell types. A finely balanced combination of endocrine cells in the islets regulates intraportal vein secretions and plasma nutrient levels. Every islet cell type is distinguished by its specific secretory granule pattern and hormone content, endocrine and cell signaling mechanisms, and neuronal interactions. The scarcity of pancreatic islet donors for patients with diabetes has caused a considerable interest in the field of islet xenotransplantation. Previous studies have shown that cell arrangement in the pancreatic islets of ruminants differs from that of other mammals; however, caprine islet cytoarchitecture has not yet been comprehensively described. This investigation aimed to characterize caprine islets in regard to better understanding of caprine islet structure and compare with previously reported species, by conducting a detailed analysis of islet architecture and composition using confocal microscopy and immunofluorescence staining for pancreatic islet hormones. Methodology After collection and purification of caprine islets with Euro-Ficoll density gradients, islets were considered for viability and functionality procedures with DTZ (dithizone) staining and GSIST (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test) subsequently. Batches of islet were selected for immunostaining and study through confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Results Histological sections of caprine pancreatic islets showed that α-cells were segregated at the periphery of β-cells. In caprine islets, α- and δ-cells remarkably were intermingled with β-cells in the mantle. Such cytoarchitecture was observed in all examined caprine pancreatic islets and was also reported for the islets of other ruminants. In both small and large caprine islets (< 150 and > 150 μm in diameter, respectively), the majority of β-cells were positioned at the core and α-cells were arranged at the mantle, while some single α-cells were also observed in the islet center. We evaluated the content of β-, α-, and δ-cells by confocal microscopy (n = 35, mean ± SD; 38.01 ± 9.50%, 30.33 ± 10.11%, 2.25 ± 1.10%, respectively) and flow cytometry (n = 9, mean ± SD; 37.52 ± 9.74%, 31.72 ± 4.92%, 2.70 ± 2.81%, respectively). Our findings indicate that the caprine islets are heterogeneous in cell composition. The difference could be attributed to species-specific interaction between endocrine cells and blood. Conclusions Comparative studies of islet architecture may lead to better understanding of islet structure and cell type population arrangement. These results suggest the use of caprine islets as an addition to the supply of islets for diabetes research. © 2016 The Authors. Xenotransplantation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Ooi T.E.K.,University Putra Malaysia | Yeap W.C.,University Putra Malaysia | Daim L.D.J.,University Putra Malaysia | Ng B.Z.,Agro Biotechnology Institute Malaysia | And 5 more authors.
Proteome Science

Background: The oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq. which produces the highest yield per unit land area of the oil crops is the most important commercial oil crop in South East Asia. The fleshy mesocarp of oil palm fruit, where oil is mostly derived from, contains up to 90 % dry weight of oil (one of the most concentrated in plant tissues). Hence, there is attention given to gain insights into the processes of oil deposition in this oil rich tissue. For that purpose, two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) coupled with western assays, were used here to analyze differential protein levels in genetically-related high-and low-yielding oil palm mesocarps. Results: From the DIGE comparative analysis in combination with western analysis, 41 unique differentially accumulated proteins were discovered. Functional categorization of these proteins placed them in the metabolisms of lipid, carbohydrate, amino acids, energy, structural proteins, as well as in other functions. In particular, higher abundance of fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase combined with reduced level of triosephosphate isomerase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase may be indicative of important flux balance changes in glycolysis, while amino acid metabolism also appeared to be closely linked with oil yield. Conclusions: Forty-one proteins in several important biological pathways were identified as exhibiting differential in abundance at critical oil production stages. These confirm that oil yield is a complex trait involving the regulation of genes in multiple biological pathways. The results also provide insights into key control points of lipid biosynthesis in oil palm and can assist in the development of genetic markers for use in oil palm breeding programmes. © 2015 Ooi et al. Source

Chan P.K.,University of Queensland | Biswas B.,University of Queensland | Gresshoff P.M.,University of Queensland | Gresshoff P.M.,Agro Biotechnology Institute Malaysia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology

Three independent ethylene insensitive mutants were selected from an EMS- mutagenized population of Lotus japonicus MG-20 (Miyakojima). The mutants, called 'Enigma', were mutated in the LjEIN2a gene from Lotus chromosome 1, sharing significant homology with Arabidopsis EIN2 (ethylene-insensitive2). All three alleles showed classical ethylene insensitivity phenotypes (e.g., Triple Response), but lacked the increased nodulation phenotype commonly associated with ethylene insensitivity. Indeed, all showed a marginal reduction in nodule number per plant, a phenotype that is enigmatic to sickle, an ethylene-insensitive EIN2 mutant in Medicago truncatula. In contrast to wild type, but similar to an ETR1-1 ethylene ethylene-insensitive transgenic of L. japonicus, enigma mutants formed nodules in between the protoxylem poles, demonstrating the influence of ethylene on radial positioning. Suppression of nodule numbers by nitrate and colonisation by mycorrhizal fungi in the enigma-1 mutant were indistinguishable from the wild-type MG-20. However, reflecting endogenous ethylene feedback, the enigma-1 mutant released more than twice the wild-type amount of ethylene. enigma-1 had a moderate reduction in growth, greater root mass (and lateral root formation), delayed flowering and ripening, smaller pods and seeds. Expression analysis of ethylene-regulated genes, such as ETR1, NRL1 (neverripe-like 1), and EIL3 in shoots and roots of enigma-1 and MG-20 illustrated that the ethylene-insensitive mutation strongly affected transcriptional responses in the root. These mutants open the possibility that EIN2 in L. japonicus, a determinate nodulating legume, acts in a more complex fashion possibly through the presence of a duplicated copy of LjEIN2. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Source

Lai K.S.,Agro Biotechnology Institute Malaysia | Yusoff K.,University Putra Malaysia
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture

Scanning DNA sequences for polymorphisms and mutations often involve the mismatch specific cleavage by endonucleases at the mismatch sites and subsequent analysis of the digested product for mutation discovery. One of the limitations of using enzymatic mutation detection methods are the cost and availability of a mismatch specific endonuclease. We report the establishment of Nicotiana tabacum L. Cv. Bright Yellow 2 cells stably expressing the truncated ENDO1 (tENDO1) mismatch specific endonuclease. The 5′-Untranslated region of N. tabacum alcohol dehydrogenase gene (NtADH 5′-UTR) under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S) promoter was employed to improve the tENDO1 protein yield. To ease the purification process, tENDO1 was secreted into the culture medium and isolated using nickel affinity chromatography. The tENDO1 was estimated to be stably produced in an average of 0.7-0.9 % total soluble protein. Functional test on tENDO1 for mismatch detection demonstrated that tENDO1 retained mismatch specific endonuclease activity resembles its native protein. Further biochemical analysis showed that tENDO1 exhibited mismatch detection specificity and efficiency comparable to other commonly used endonucleases. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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