Agro Bio Institute

Sofia, Bulgaria

Agro Bio Institute

Sofia, Bulgaria
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Vezenkov L.,University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy of Sofia | Sevalle J.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Danalev D.,University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy of Sofia | Ivanov T.,University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy of Sofia | And 3 more authors.
Current Alzheimer Research | Year: 2012

We previously designed novel peptides-containing galantamine analogues. These compounds we analyzed for their putative inhibitory effect towards acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and γ-secretase, three activities of which could be central to various neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer's disease. These pharmacological agents were virtually equipotent on acetylcholinesterase activity but display drastically higher inhibitory activities towards butyrylcholinesterase with several compounds displaying an about 100-fold higher activity than that harboured by galantamine. Strikingly, two of the galantamine amides that displayed low activity towards acetylcholinesterase exhibited the highest inhibitory potency towards butyrylcholinesterase (106 to 133 times more active than galantamine). Interestingly, five compounds show a rather good γ-secretase inhibitory potency while they retain their ability to inhibit AChE and/or BuChE activity. Thus, we have been able to design novel compounds with significant inhibitory activity against several of the enzymes responsible for key dysfunctions taking place in several neurodegenerative diseases. These mixed inhibitors could therefore be envisioned as potential pharmacological tools aimed at circumventing the degenerative processes taking place in these major pathologies. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

DODIG D.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje | RANCIC D.,University of Belgrade | VUCELIC RADOVIC B.,University of Belgrade | ZORIC M.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

Assimilated carbon during vegetative and early reproductive growth in wheat is temporarily stored in stem internodes and leaf sheaths (LSs), and can later be remobilized and transported to developing grain. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of several peduncle (the uppermost internode) morpho-anatomical and biochemical traits on grain weight, and to assess the contribution of the peduncle water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) reserves shortly after anthesis to its variation. In 2-year field trials, 61 wheat genotypes were used (27 F4:5 families, 17 parents used for the crosses and the 17 current best standards), comparing intact control plants (CP) with plants that were defoliated (DP) by cutting off all leaf blades 10 days after anthesis. Estimated contributions of peduncle (culm (C) and flag LS) assimilate reserves to grain weight/spike were from 0·06 to 0·31 and from 0·11 to 0·45 in CP and DP plants, respectively. In both CP and DP plants, a higher contribution was from the LS than from the C. High peduncle reserve mobilization efficiency, a longer exposed part of the peduncle and larger C storage capacity (through higher parenchyma and/or lower lignified area) were of specific benefit for maintaining grain weight in defoliated plants. F4:5 families had higher transport capacity in the peduncle, but without any improvement in WSC-related traits compared with the best standards. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016

Abumhadi N.,Agro Bio Institute | Todorovska E.,Agro Bio Institute | Assenov B.,Agro Bio Institute | Tsonev S.,Agro Bio Institute | And 5 more authors.
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2012

During the recent decades, global climate change recognized as one of the most serious challenges facing the world - its people, the environment and its economies. Agriculture will face significant challenges in the 21st century, largely due to the need to increase global food supply under the declining availability of soil and water resources and increasing threats from climate change. Nonetheless, these challenges also offer opportunities to develop and promote food and livelihood systems that have greater environmental, economic and social resilience to risk. It is clear that success in meeting these challenges will require both the application of current multidisciplinary knowledge, and the development of a range of technical and institutional innovations. The changing climate is also a major challenge for agriculture and agricultural policy-making. Agriculture needs to address the double challenge of reducing its greenhouse gases emissions (GHGs) while at the same time adapting to projected impacts of climate change. In 2003, Nobel Laureate Richard E. Smalley outlined Humanity's Top Ten Problems for the next 50 years, in a talk given for the MIT Enterprise Forum. According to Professor Smalley, the biggest problems facing humanity are: Energy, Water, Food, Environment, Poverty, Terrorism and War, Disease, Education, Democracy and Population. The goal of the present study is to summarize main findings regarding some of these problems focusing on changes in climate conditions and to provide an overview of major challenges facing the global food and agricultural system in the 21st century and the impacts of the climate change. In the future, the review studies will focus on expanding the research for some specific challenges of climate change (Drought, cold, salinity) and its impact on agriculture.

Danalev D.L.,University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy of Sofia | Vezenkov L.T.,University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy of Sofia | Lozanov V.,Medical University-Sofia | Bakalova A.,Agro Bio Institute
International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2010

A series of new low molecular weight peptide inhibitors, antistasin and ghilantens fragment analogues was designed and synthesized by manual solid phase peptide synthesis. These compounds only differ either by the amino acid placed in position 109 (different basic amino acids) and 115 position (Val or Ile) or 116 position Pro (as free acid or as amide). The anticoagulant activity of the different synthesized peptide mimetics was measured. Further the IC50 was obtained by means of Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time measurement. Using Mihaelis-Menthen equation the mixed type of inhibition toward thrombin and Factor Xa is determined. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Todorovska E.,Agro Bio Institute | Atanassov A.,Joint Genomic Center | Vassilev D.,Agro Bio Institute
Genetika | Year: 2010

The classical concepts in plant and livestock selection for economically important quantitative traits traditionally are based on phenotypic records, aiming at improvement of the traits by obtaining better genetic gain. The increase in genetic variation together with shortening of the generation interval is the major target of long term improvement of methods and tools for selection activities. The discoveries and implementations of biotechnology and molecular biology for selection purposes provide a stable background for generating of new knowledge and practical use in agricultural research and practice as well as to meet the growing demand for more and with better quality food and feed. The innovations in molecular knowledge related to practical selection aside with the quick quantification in breeding schemes allowed to reconsider the opportunities for sustainable development of selection methods for improvement of the traits of interest in agriculture, the quick invention and practical application of new high-throughput technologies for studying of the genomic variation, evolution, translation of proteins and metabolite determination altogether put in an open and communicative environment of information technologies provide a new holistic platform for better research and more knowledge for practical application of selection decisions.

Nikolaeva-Glomb L.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Mukova L.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Nikolova N.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Badjakov I.,Agro Bio Institute | And 4 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2014

Wild berry species are known to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. They have long been traditionally applied for their antiseptic, antimicrobial, cardioprotective and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study is to reveal the potential for selective antiviral activity of total methanol extracts, as well as that of the anthocyanins and the non-anthocyanins from the following wild berries picked in Bulgaria: strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) of the Rosaceae plant family, and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillis L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L) of the Ericaceae. The antiviral effect has been tested against viruses that are important human pathogens and for which chemotherapy and/or chemoprophylaxis is indicated, namely poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) and coxsackievirus B1 (CV-B1) from the Picornaviridae virus family, human respiratory syncytial virus A2 (HRSV-A2) from the Paramyxoviridae and influenza virus A/H3N2 of Orthomyxoviridae. Wild berry fruits are freeze-dried and ground, then total methanol extracts are prepared. Further the extracts are fractioned by solid phase extraction and the non-anthocyanin and anthocyanin fractions are eluted. The in vitro antiviral effect is examined by the virus cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition test. The results reveal that the total extracts of all tested berry fruits inhibit the replication of CV-B1 and influenza A virus. CV-B1 is inhibited to the highest degree by both bilberry and strawberry, as well as by lingonberry total extracts, and influenza A by bilberry and strawberry extracts. Anthocyanin fractions of all wild berries strongly inhibit the replication of influenza virus A/H3N2. Given the obtained results it is concluded that wild berry species are a valuable resource of antiviral substances and the present study should serve as a basis for further detailed research on the matter.

Rusanov K.,Agro Bio Institute | Kovacheva N.,Essential Medical | Rusanova M.,Agro Bio Institute | Atanassov I.,Agro Bio Institute
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2012

The composition of volatile compounds in the rose essential oils obtained from the rose flowers has been known to be affected by a number of factors including the region of rose growing. The variations of the flower volatile composition of Rosa damascena plants growing in 11 different rose plantations along the famous Rose Valley in Bulgaria were studied following GC/MS metabolite profiling. ANOVA statistical test revealed that only 14 of a total of 90 identified compounds were significantly influenced by the geographic location of the sampled rose plantation. The hierarchical clustering analysis based on the subset of these 14 compounds revealed no clear correlation between the levels of rose flower volatiles and geographic location of the studied rose plantations. The results from the study suggest low variability of rose flower volatiles accumulation and elevated plasticity of the common R. damascena genotype industrially cultivated in the Rose Valley. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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