Vikýřovice, Czech Republic
Vikýřovice, Czech Republic

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Kucera J.,Svaz Chovatelu Ceskeho Strakateho Skotu | Kopec T.,Svaz Chovatelu Ceskeho Strakateho Skotu | Yong T.,Anhui Agricultural University | Hanus O.,Research Institute for Cattle Breeding Rapotin | Kopecky J.,Agriresearch Rapotin
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2010

Based on the linear type classification of 49 246 young cows of the Czech Fleckvieh breed the overall udder score was proposed. Calculation of the overall udder score is derived from the particular type traits, especially from those traits, where the optimal development is not scored by maximum. Cubic regression coefficients were used for recalculation and obtained a new scale for traits such as udder depth, teat length, teat thickness, teat position and teat placement. These re-calculated traits together with other particular traits described on the udder were combined to the model for overall udder score - model 1. In the model 2 the same proportion of the particular traits was used with restriction by extreme development of the udder dept, where two different levels of penalization (-3 and -6 points) were used. Both models were compared with the current used system, where the -x = 77.1, s = 5.22; for model -x = 84.94 (s = 2.65); for model 2 -x = 84.40, s = 2.74. In both proposed models the distribution of the overall score for udder showed significantly smooth distribution, than in current system. The coefficient of correlation between current system and new proposals reached r = 0.799. Estimated breeding values for new models decreased from x = 0.199, s = 0.946 by the current used system, to -x = 0.087 for model 1, -x = 0.089 for model 2 respectively. Also the variability of the breeding values decreased. Estimated coefficients of heritability also decreased from 0.22 by the current system to 0.15 by the model 1 and 0.15 by the model 2, respectively.

Hanus O.,Agriresearch Rapotin | Gencurova V.,Research Institute for Cattle Breeding Rapotin | Kopec T.,Svaz Chovatelu Ceskeho Strakateho Skotu | Yong T.,Anhui Agricultural University | Janu L.,Research Institute for Cattle Breeding Rapotin
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2010

Routine milk analyses using the efficient indirect infra-red method are important for the milk food chain quality. The reliability of the results depends on the calibration quality. It is important to use a relevant set of reference calibration samples (RCSs). RCSs with right range of values can be prepared using various methods. This paper was aimed to balance the impacts of dilution for decrease of main components in RCSs because of minimal change of matrix interference effects. Cow milk samples (MSs) were diluted (4/1) using distilled water, NaCl solution and a solution with specific composition (SC; because of disturbance in the balance of the milk matrix (NaCl 1.145; KCl 0.849; K2HPO4 1.8463; citric acid 1.7; urea 0.3 g/l)) for reduction in main milk components. Fat (F), crude protein (CP), lactose (L), milk freezing point (MFP), osmolality (OS) and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured in all (original as well as modified) MSs. The lowest MFP and OS were in the original milk -0.5559 °C and 274.5 mOsmol/kg. The MFP was increased to -0.4369 °C and osmolality decreased to 217.83 mOsmol/kg by the addition of water. The MFP was decreased (-0.4903 °C) and returned to original milk value by the addition of NaCl solutin. MFP was -0.4788 °C due to SC addition. The decrease was less than for NaCl. The ability of other SC components (K2HPO4, KCl, citric acid and urea) to MFP decrease is less than for NaCl solution. EC was highest for NaCl set 4.69 mS/cm, EC for SC was 4.48 mS/cm (P < 0.001). The original MSs set showed EC 4.27 mS/cm. The SC was the nearest to original MSs in terms of total mineral composition. ECs for both modifications differed (P < 0.001) from original MSs. The procedure is applicable for balance of interference effects of milk matrix because of relevant calibration.

Hanus O.,Research Institute for Cattle Breeding Rapotin | Hronek M.,University of Hradec Kralove | Hyspler R.,University of Hradec Kralove | Yong T.,China Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2010

Somatic cell count (SCC) is an indicator of mammary gland health state. Lactose (L) can be reduced with mastitis and SCC increase. Mammary gland health is an essential factor of milk quality. Monitoring of mammary gland health is important for prevention and treatment of milk secretion disorders. The goal of this work was to analyse the relationship between SCC and L in various biological species. 7 sets of individual and bulk milk samples (MSs) were analysed (n = 479, 479, 345, 80, 90 and 102) for SCC and L content. 3 sets were with cow (C) milk and 1 set with goat (G), 1 with sheep (S) and 1 with human (H) MSs. The relations in C milk were used as reference. SCC geometric means were markedly lower in C milk (62,99 and 81 and H milk (103 as compared to small ruminants (G 3 509 and S 609 The mean L values were lower in small ruminants (G 4.36% and S 4.42%) as compared to C milk (4.95%, 4.97% and in 1st lactation 5.10%) and higher in H milk (5.77%). L contents in Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein correlated negatively to SCC (log SCC)) in all lactations (-0.36 P < 0.001 and -0.33 P < 0.001). L content in 1st lactation correlated with SCC markedly narrower than in cows for all lactations (-0.49 P < 0.001). The SCC×L relationship in G (White short-haired) milk (-0.35 P < 0.01) was in good relation to C mük and in S (Tsigai) milk (-0.51P < 0.001) was markedly narrower as in C and G milk. Lower mean SCC in H milk as compared to G and S milk and comparable to C milk did not show significant negative relationship to L which was 0.08 (P > 0.05) for original SCC values. Surprisingly there was not found the SCCxL relationship in H milk which could be comparable to other mammal species milk. It could be caused by bacteriologically negative results in MSs with higher SCC (> 300 10 As well as at C milk also at G and S milk and in contrast to H milk it is possible to use the SCCxL relationship for improvement of result interpretation and prevention control in occurrence of milk secretion production disorders in routine monitoring systems such as milk recording with individual MSs and milk quality control with bulk MSs. The quality of decision-making schemes in algorithms for practical monitoring of mammary gland health could be improved.

Vyletelova-Klimesova M.,Dairy Research Institute | Hanus O.,Dairy Research Institute | Dufek A.,Agriresearch Rapotin | Nemeckova I.,Dairy Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2014

Influence of breed on somatic cell count (SCC) and occurrence of particular species was evaluated. The samples were collected from farms with Holstein (H; 10 farms-365 cows) breeding and from farms with Czech Fleckvieh (CF; 2 farms-67 cows). The obtained dataset was statisticaly evaluated by analysis of variance. The occurrence of pathogens was compared between H and CF. The relationship between SCC and incidence of pathogens was determined as well. It is evident that more positive cows were in breed H compared to CF (H 41.6%; CF 26.9%). The most frequent pathogens in H breed were S. aureus (13.7%), S. uberis (9.6%), S. haemolyticus (8.5%), S. agalactiae (6.9%), E. faecalis (2.5%) and E. faecium (0.8%), while only S. uberis (19.4%), S. haemolyticus (6%) and S. aureus (1.5%) were found in CF. SCC results showed the higher SCC in H breed in case of both negative and positive cows as well and significant impact of breed on logSCC (F = 6.4, P = 0.012). The significant effects of bacterial species were confirmed (F = 13.6, P < 0.001). Multiple comparison among groups of bacterial species showed significant differences between negative and S. aureus, S. agalactiae, S. uberis (P = 0.012, P < 0.001, P < 0.001). Differences between negative and other pathogens were not signifiant. © 2014 National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.

Hanus O.,Research Institute for Cattle Breeding Rapotin | Sojkova K.,AgriResearch Rapotin | Hanusova K.,AgriResearch Rapotin | Samkova E.,University of South Bohemia | And 5 more authors.
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2011

Somatic cell count (SCC) is important foodstuff, hygienic and health indicator of milk and animal mammary gland. The goal of this paper was to evaluate an ability of chosen methods to reach the SCC reliable results in various biological kinds (species) of milk. The various methods of SCC determination were compared in cow (CM), goat (GM), sheep (SM) and human (HM) milk: direct microscopy (DM); fluoro-opto-electronic (Fossomatic 90; Foss); fluorescent (DCC; De Laval). Used methods had cow milk calibration basically. The DM, Foss and DCC result relations about SCC were very close, mostly≥ 0.92 (P < 0.001) for CM, GM and SM. In CM the regression equations between methods were near ideal form y = 1x + 0. The mean differences SCC data sets between mentioned methods were small for CM, larger for SM and HM and the largest for GM. It is possible to convert all DCC results in SM, HM and GM to DM or Foss method. The conversion equations were stated from DCC: to DM in cowmilky=1.1293x-5.5029; to Foss in goat milky= 3.603x-3171.4; to Foss in sheep milky =1.3805x - 18.149; to Foss in human milk y = 2.6246x + 158.63. Assesment of conversion equations should be individual laboratory event. Results had relatively good correspondence among DM, Foss and DCC for SCC determination in CM, GM, SM and HM for milk quality control. DCC had lower results in small ruminants as compared to Foss calibrated on CM using DM. DCC in HM had lower results as Foss adjusted by CM at good correlation (0.84; P < 0.001).

Hanus O.,Dairy Research Institute | Hering P.,Laborator Pro Rozbory Mleka Bustehrad | Roubal P.,Dairy Research Institute | Chladek G.,Mendels University in Brno | And 4 more authors.
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2012

At dairying cost reduction and effort about maintenance of milk recording (MR) range the MR cost decrease is also important. Aim was to revise the older prediction equations for alternative reduced milk sampling (morning - M or evening - E) for assurance of MR reliable results at twice milking a day (TMD) with balanced interval 12/12. Individual milk samples (n = 619 animals) were obtained during TMD (M, E and REF; n = 1 857 samples). Fat (F), protein (P), lactose (L) and somatic cell count (SCC) were analysed. Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein breeds were included. The reference values (REF) of day milking were obtained in regular MR (A4P). M and E milking results were related to the REF. Older prediction equations with lower validity because of time and breeding were revised: a) for F from M on REF y = 0.6932x + 1.381, where r = 0.752 and P ≤ 0.001; b) for P from M on REF y = 0.9432x + 0.2274, where r = 0.949 and P ≤ 0.001; c) for L from E on REF y = 0.8145x + 0.9095, where r = 0.87 and P ≤ 0.001; d) for log SCC from E on REF y = 0.8829x + 0.2367, where r = 0.94 and P ≤ 0.001. MR cost reduction is possible using method of alternative sampling including corresponding prediction equations.

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