Agrifirm Innovation Center

Apeldoorn, Netherlands

Agrifirm Innovation Center

Apeldoorn, Netherlands
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Sahasrabudhe N.M.,University of Groningen | Tian L.,Wageningen University | van den Berg M.,Royal DSM | Bruggeman G.,Nuscience Group Headquarters | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2016

Oat β-Glucans were studied for their immunological impact before and after enzymatic digestion in order to enhance the efficacy of oat β-Glucans for application in functional foods. Oat β-Glucan is reported to have minimal impact compared to its fungal counterpart in vitro. Digestion with endo-glucanase enhanced its efficacy towards stimulating MCP-1, RANTES, IL-8, and IL-production in human dendritic cells as compared to the nondigested β-Glucan. This effect resulted from an enhanced activation of the Dectin-receptor. Our data suggest that the immune-stimulation was dependent on the β-(1-3) linkages and the reduced particle size of digested β-Glucans. Thus, we show that enzymatic pre-digestion of dietary fibres such as oat β-Glucan enhances its impact on specific immune receptors. We also demonstrate that particle size and/or molecular weight of oat β-Glucans and exposure of specific binding sites for the receptors might be important tools for designing efficacious functional feed and food additives. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Mach N.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Mach N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Zom R.L.G.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Widjaja H.C.A.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2013

During the transition period in dairy cows, drastic adaptations within and between key tissues and cell types occur in a coordinated manner to support late gestation, the synthesis of large quantities of milk and metabolic homoeostasis. The start of lactation coincides with an increase of triacylglycerols in the liver, which has been associated with several economically important diseases in dairy cows (i.e. hepatic lipidiosis, mastitis). The polyunsaturated fatty acids have been used to improve liver metabolism and immune function in the mammary gland. Therefore, the effects of dietary linseed supplementation on milk quality and liver, adipose and mammary gland metabolism of periparturient dairy cows were studied in 14 cows that were randomly assigned to control or linseed supplementation. Animals were treated from 3 weeks antepartum until 6 weeks post-partum. Linseed did not modify dry matter intake, but increased milk yield and lactose yield, and decreased milk fat concentration, which coincided with lower proportion of C16 and higher proportions of stearic acid, conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in milk fat. Linseed supplementation did not significantly change the expression of key lipid metabolism genes in liver and adipose tissues, except of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in liver, which was increased in cows supplemented with linseed, suggesting that more glucose was secreted and probably available for lactose synthesis compared with cows fed control diet. Large adaptations of transcription occurred in the mammary gland when dairy cows were supplemented with linseed. The main affected functional modules were related to energy metabolism, cell proliferation and remodelling, as well as the immune system response. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Bruininx E.,Wageningen University | Bruininx E.,Agrifirm Innovation Center | van den Borne J.,Wageningen University | van Heugten E.,North Carolina State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

We used the pig as a model to assess the effects of dietary fat content and composition on nutrient oxidation and energy partitioning in positive energy balance. Pigs weighing 25 kg were assigned to either: 1) a low fat-high starch diet, or 2) a high saturated-fat diet, or 3) a high unsaturated-fat diet. In the high-fat treatments, 20% starch was iso-energetically replaced by 10.8% lard or 10.2% soybean oil, respectively. For 7 d, pigs were fed twice daily at a rate of 1200 kJ digestible energy × kg -0.75 × d -1. Oral bolus doses of [U- 13C] glucose, [U- 13C] a-linoleate, [U- 13C] stearate, and [U- 13C] oleate were administered on d 1, 2, 4, and 6, respectively, and 13CO 2 production was measured. Protein and fat deposition were measured for 7 d. Fractional oxidation of fatty acids from the low-fat diet was lower than from the high-fat diets. Within diets, the saturated [U- 13C] stearate was oxidized less than the unsaturated [U- 13C] oleate and [U- 13C] linoleate. For the high unsaturated-fat diet, oxidation of [U- 13C] oleate was higher than that of [U- 13C] linoleate. In general, recovery of 13CO 2 from labeled fatty acids rose within 2 h after ingestion but peaked around the next meal. This peak was induced by an increased energy expenditure that was likely related to increased eating activity. In conclusion, oxidation of dietary fatty acids in growing pigs depends on the inclusion level and composition of dietary fat. Moreover, our data suggest that the most recently ingested fatty acids are preferred substrates for oxidation when the direct supply of dietary nutrients has decreased and ATP requirements increase. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.


PubMed | Wageningen University, Nutrition science N.V, University of Groningen, Agrifirm Innovation Center and Royal DSM
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular nutrition & food research | Year: 2016

We aimed to investigate the effects of three different soluble pectins on the digestion of other consumed carbohydrates, and the consequent alterations of microbiota composition and SCFA levels in the intestine of pigs.Piglets were fed a low-methyl esterified pectin enriched diet (LMP), a high-methyl esterified pectin enriched diet (HMP), a hydrothermal treated soybean meal enriched diet (aSBM) or a control diet (CONT). LMP significantly decreased the ileal digestibility of starch resulting in more starch fermentation in the proximal colon. In the ileum, low-methyl esterified pectin present was more efficiently fermented by the microbiota than high-methyl esterified pectin present which was mainly fermented by the microbiota in the proximal colon. Treated soybean meal was mainly fermented in the proximal colon and shifted the fermentation of cereal dietary fiber to more distal parts, resulting in high SCFA levels in the mid colon. LMP, HMP, and aSBM decreased the relative abundance of the genus Lactobacillus and increased that of Prevotella in the colon.The LMP, HMP, and aSBM, differently affected the digestion processes compared to the control diet and shaped the colonic microbiota from a Lactobacillus-dominating flora to a Prevotella-dominating community, with potential health-promoting effects.


Sterk A.,Wageningen University | Sterk A.,Agrifirm Innovation Center | Vlaeminck B.,Ghent University | van Vuuren A.M.,Wageningen University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of feeding different linseed sources on omasal fatty acid (FA) flows, and plasma and milk FA profiles in dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crushed linseed (CL), extruded whole linseed (EL), formaldehyde-treated linseed oil (FL) and linseed oil in combination with marine algae rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DL). Each period in the Latin square design lasted 21 d, with the first 16 d for adaptation. Omasal flow was estimated by the omasal sampling technique using Cr-EDTA, Yb-acetate, and acid detergent lignin as digesta flow markers. The average DM intake was 20.6 ± 2.5. kg/d, C18:3n-3 intake was 341 ± 51. g/d, and milk yield was 32.0 ± 4.6. kg/d. Milk fat yield was lower for the DL treatment (0.96. kg/d) compared with the other linseed treatments (CL, 1.36. kg/d; EL, 1.49. kg/d; FL, 1.54. kg/d). Omasal flow of C18:3n-3 was higher and C18:3n-3 biohydrogenation was lower for the EL treatment (33.8. g/d; 90.9%) compared with the CL (21.8. g/d; 94.0%), FL (15.5. g/d; 95.4%), and DL (4.6. g/d; 98.5%) treatments, whereas whole-tract digestibility of crude fat was lower for the EL treatment (64.8%) compared with the CL (71.3%), FL (78.5%), and DL (80.4%) treatments. The proportion of C18:3n-3 (g/100. g of FA) was higher for the FL treatment compared with the other treatments in plasma triacylglycerols (FL, 3.60; CL, 1.22; EL, 1.35; DL, 1.12) and milk fat (FL, 3.19; CL, 0.87; EL, 0.83; DL, 0.46). Omasal flow and proportion of C18:0 in plasma and milk fat were lower, whereas omasal flow and proportions of biohydrogenation intermediates in plasma and milk fat were higher for the DL treatment compared with the other linseed treatments. The results demonstrate that feeding EL did not result in a higher C18:3n-3 proportion in plasma and milk fat despite the higher omasal C18:3n-3 flow. This was related to the decreased total-tract digestibility of crude fat. Feeding FL resulted in a higher C18:3n-3 proportion in plasma and milk fat, although the omasal C18:3n-3 flow was similar or lower than for the CL and EL treatment, respectively. Feeding DL inhibited biohydrogenation of trans-11,. cis-15-C18:2 to C18:0, as indicated by the increased omasal flows and proportions of biohydrogenation intermediates in plasma and milk fat. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.


Sterk A.,Wageningen University | Sterk A.,Agrifirm Innovation Center | Van Vuuren A.M.,Wageningen University | Van Vuuren A.M.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2012

A meta-analysis was conducted to study milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows in response to changes in dietary nutrient composition in relation to supplementation of fat sources, their technological form, addition of fish oil and main forage type in the basal diet. Data comprised 151 treatment means from 50 experiments, which were included in the database when diet composition, nutrient composition, FA composition, dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield, milk composition and milk FA profile were reported. Mixed model regression analysis including a random experiment effect and unequal variances among experiments was used. Least squares means were obtained for the different fat sources (unsupplemented, rapeseed, soybean+sunflower, linseed, or fish oil), technological form including addition of fish oil (oil, seed, protected and added fish oil), and main forage type (lucerne silage, barley silage, maize silage, grass silage, maize silage combined with haylage, or haylage) in the basal diet. Results showed that the technological form of supplemental rapeseed, soybean, sunflower, or linseed significantly influenced the effect of dietary nutrient composition on milk fat content and milk FA profile resulting in significant differences between technological forms within the different fat sources. Protected rapeseed and linseed increased C18:2n6 and C18:3n3 proportions in milk fat, respectively, whereas soybean and sunflower seed increased transfer efficiencies for C18:2n6 and C18:3n3 and their proportions in milk fat. Soybean, sunflower, or linseed supplied as oil increased trans-11-C18:1 proportions in milk fat, whereas the addition of fish oil to a diet containing soybean or sunflower decreased C18:0 and cis-9-C18:1 proportions in milk fat. The main forage type in the diet also significantly influenced the effect of dietary nutrient composition on milk fat content and milk FA profile, resulting in significant differences between main forage types in the diet within the different fat sources. Maize silage as the main forage type increased trans-11-C18:1 in unsupplemented diets or diets supplemented with a source of soybean or sunflower. For rapeseed supplemented diets, barley silage increased transfer efficiency and milk fat proportion of C18:2n6, whereas grass silage increased proportion of C18:3n3 in milk fat. For soybean or sunflower supplemented diets, haylage increased proportions of saturated FA, cis-9-C18:1 and C18:2n6, whereas the combination of maize silage and haylage increased transfer efficiency and milk fat proportion of C18:3n3. For linseed supplemented diets, grass silage as the main forage type resulted in the highest C18:3n3 proportion, whereas cis-9-C18:1 proportion was comparable for grass silage, lucerne silage and maize silage as the main forage type. This meta-analysis confirmed that the effect of dietary nutrient composition on several milk FA proportions depends on the type and form of fat supplementation, addition of fish oil, and main forage type in the basal diet. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.


Sterk A.,Wageningen University | Sterk A.,Agrifirm Innovation Center | Johansson B.E.O.,Lantmannen Lantbruk | Taweel H.Z.H.,Agrifirm Innovation Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

The effects of an increasing proportion of crushed linseed (CL) in combination with varying forage type (grass or corn silage) and forage to concentrate ratio (F:C), and their interactions on milk fatty acid (FA) profile of high-producing dairy cows was studied using a 3-factor Box-Behnken design. Sixteen Holstein and 20 Swedish Red cows were blocked according to breed, parity, and milk yield, and randomly assigned to 4 groups. Groups were fed different treatment diets formulated from combinations of the 3 main factors each containing 3 levels. Forage type (fraction of total forage dry matter, DM) included 20, 50, and 80% grass silage, with the remainder being corn silage. The F:C (DM basis) were 35:65, 50:50, and 65:35, and CL was supplied at 1, 3, and 5% of diet DM. Starch and neutral detergent fiber content (DM basis) of the treatment diets ranged from 117 to 209g/kg and 311 to 388g/kg, respectively. Thirteen treatment diets were formulated according to the Box-Behnken design. During 4 experimental periods of 21 d each, all treatment diets were fed, including a repetition of the center point treatment (50% grass silage, 50:50F:C, 3% CL) during every period. Intake, production performance, and milk FA profile were measured, and response surface equations were derived for these variables. Shifting from 80% grass silage to 80% corn silage in the diet linearly increased dry matter intake (DMI), net energy for lactation (NEL) intake, cis-9,cis-12-C18:2 (C18:2n-6) intake, and milk yield, and linearly decreased cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-C18:3 (C18:3n-3) intake and milk fat content. Shifting from a high forage to a high concentrate diet linearly increased DMI, NEL intake, C18:2n-6 intake, and milk yield, and decreased milk fat content. Supplementation of CL linearly increased C18:3n-3 intake, but had no effect on DMI, NEL intake, milk yield, or milk fat content. Shifting from 80% grass silage to 80% corn silage linearly increased proportions of trans-10-C18:1 and C18:2n-6 in milk fat, whereas the proportions of trans-11,cis-15-C18:2 and C18:3n-3 linearly decreased. Significant interactions between CL supplementation and F:C were found for proportions of trans-10-C18:1, trans-15-C18:1, cis-15-C18:1, trans-11,cis-15-C18:2, and C18:3n-3 in milk fat, with the highest levels achieved when the diet contained 5% CL and a 35:65F:C ratio. The effect of supplementing CL on several milk FA proportions, including C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3, depends significantly on the F:C ratio and forage type in the basal diet. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association.


De Mol R.M.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Troost M.-H.,Rovecom | Sterk A.,Agrifirm Innovation Center | Van Winden R.,Agrifirm Innovation Center | And 5 more authors.
Precision Livestock Farming 2015 - Papers Presented at the 7th European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming, ECPLF 2015 | Year: 2015

Sensor measurements, such as milk yield, concentrate intake, activity, rumination and body weight, can be used to detect metabolic disorders in dairy cows. In an on-farm study, different types of sensor were installed and evaluated on three dairy farms during a period of up to two years. On two farms, cows were milked in an automatic milking system, and the third farm used conventional milking. Each farm was equipped with a different set of sensors. Sensor data were pre-processed to convert values per measurement into one aggregated value per cow per day. Alerts for a single variable were based on a change in level (e.g. decrease in activity), a change in trend (e.g. unexpected decrease in milk yield) or a difference in index (e.g. excessive body weight before calving compared with the average weight). To improve test characteristics, a combined alert was created by using the number of individual alerts per cow per day. A combined alert was triggered when the number of alerts exceeded a threshold. Farmers' recordings of diseases were used as reference data. This resulted in a sensitivity (percentage of detected cases) of up to 83% for metabolic disorders. The specificity (percentage of healthy cows classified as healthy) was too low for practical application. Alerts were combined in Standard Operating Procedures to improve the test characteristics. Other multivariate analysis methods might lead to further improvements in sensitivity and specificity.


Gerritsen R.,Wageningen University | Gerritsen R.,Agrifirm Innovation Center | Laurenssen B.F.A.,Wageningen University | Hazeleger W.,Wageningen University | And 4 more authors.
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2014

This paper presents follicle development and hormone profiles for sows with normal ovulation or cystic follicles during an intermittent-suckling (IS) regime that started at Day 14 of lactation. Sows were subjected to separation from their piglets during blocks of 6h or 12h. In total, 8 out of 52 sows developed cystic follicles; either full cystic ovaries (n≤6) or partial ovulation (n≤2). Increase in follicle size of these sows was similar to that of normal ovulating sows until pre-ovulatory size at Day 5 after the start of separation, but from then on became larger (P<0.05). LH surge was smaller or absent in sows that developed (partially) cystic ovaries (0.4±0.1 vs 3.6±0.3ngmL-1; P<0.01). Peak levels of oestradiol (E2) were similar but high E2 levels persisted in sows that developed (partly) cystic ovaries and duration of oestrus tended to be longer. The risk of developing (partly) cystic ovaries was higher when IS occurred in blocks of 6h versus 12h (33 vs 10%). In conclusion, the appearance of cystic ovaries at approximately Day 20 of ongoing lactation was related to an insufficient LH surge, as is also the case in non-lactating sows. © 2014 CSIRO.


Bruininx E.,Wageningen University | Bruininx E.,Agrifirm Innovation Center | van den Borne J.,Wageningen University | Eising I.,Wageningen University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 28 growing boars (initial BW of 24.7 ± 1.5 kg) were used to examine the effects of energy source (high starch vs. high fat) and DE level (2.2 vs. 2.7 times the DE requirements for maintenance) on Lys requirements. Pigs were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments. A within-animal Lys titration technique was used to assess the responses to changes in Lys to energy ratio. The amount of apparent ileal digestible Lys in the diet decreased stepwise from 1.74 to 0.5 g/MJ DE in 8 equidistant steps of 3 d each. From 48-h urinary nitrogen excretion, the optimal Lys to energy ratio was estimated for each pig using a linear- plateau model. Feces were collected quantitatively over 27 d to determine apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients. The DE to ADG ratio, but not DE intake and ADG, tended (P < 0.1) to be 4% lower in the high-starch group than in the high-fat group. The ATTD of energy and CP tended (P < 0.1) to be lower (0.8% and 0.9% units, respectively) at the high DE level. The ATTD of energy was 2.2% units greater (P < 0.001) for pigs fed the high-starch diet, but the ATTD of CP was not affected by ES. Estimates for the intercept (21.2% to 22.8%), slope (57.4 to 59.6), transition point (0.84 to 0.86 g Lys/MJ DE), and plateau (70.6% to 72.3%) of the linear-plateau Lys titration curves were not affected by the dietary treatments. In conclusion, ES does not affect Lys requirements in growing pigs regardless the level of DE intake. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

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