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Apeldoorn, Netherlands

Sahasrabudhe N.M.,University of Groningen | Tian L.,Wageningen University | van den Berg M.,Royal DSM | Bruggeman G.,Nuscience Group Headquarters | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2016

Oat β-Glucans were studied for their immunological impact before and after enzymatic digestion in order to enhance the efficacy of oat β-Glucans for application in functional foods. Oat β-Glucan is reported to have minimal impact compared to its fungal counterpart in vitro. Digestion with endo-glucanase enhanced its efficacy towards stimulating MCP-1, RANTES, IL-8, and IL-production in human dendritic cells as compared to the nondigested β-Glucan. This effect resulted from an enhanced activation of the Dectin-receptor. Our data suggest that the immune-stimulation was dependent on the β-(1-3) linkages and the reduced particle size of digested β-Glucans. Thus, we show that enzymatic pre-digestion of dietary fibres such as oat β-Glucan enhances its impact on specific immune receptors. We also demonstrate that particle size and/or molecular weight of oat β-Glucans and exposure of specific binding sites for the receptors might be important tools for designing efficacious functional feed and food additives. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Mach N.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Mach N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Zom R.L.G.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Widjaja H.C.A.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2013

During the transition period in dairy cows, drastic adaptations within and between key tissues and cell types occur in a coordinated manner to support late gestation, the synthesis of large quantities of milk and metabolic homoeostasis. The start of lactation coincides with an increase of triacylglycerols in the liver, which has been associated with several economically important diseases in dairy cows (i.e. hepatic lipidiosis, mastitis). The polyunsaturated fatty acids have been used to improve liver metabolism and immune function in the mammary gland. Therefore, the effects of dietary linseed supplementation on milk quality and liver, adipose and mammary gland metabolism of periparturient dairy cows were studied in 14 cows that were randomly assigned to control or linseed supplementation. Animals were treated from 3 weeks antepartum until 6 weeks post-partum. Linseed did not modify dry matter intake, but increased milk yield and lactose yield, and decreased milk fat concentration, which coincided with lower proportion of C16 and higher proportions of stearic acid, conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in milk fat. Linseed supplementation did not significantly change the expression of key lipid metabolism genes in liver and adipose tissues, except of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in liver, which was increased in cows supplemented with linseed, suggesting that more glucose was secreted and probably available for lactose synthesis compared with cows fed control diet. Large adaptations of transcription occurred in the mammary gland when dairy cows were supplemented with linseed. The main affected functional modules were related to energy metabolism, cell proliferation and remodelling, as well as the immune system response. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Bruininx E.,Wageningen University | Bruininx E.,Agrifirm Innovation Center | van den Borne J.,Wageningen University | van Heugten E.,North Carolina State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

We used the pig as a model to assess the effects of dietary fat content and composition on nutrient oxidation and energy partitioning in positive energy balance. Pigs weighing 25 kg were assigned to either: 1) a low fat-high starch diet, or 2) a high saturated-fat diet, or 3) a high unsaturated-fat diet. In the high-fat treatments, 20% starch was iso-energetically replaced by 10.8% lard or 10.2% soybean oil, respectively. For 7 d, pigs were fed twice daily at a rate of 1200 kJ digestible energy × kg -0.75 × d -1. Oral bolus doses of [U- 13C] glucose, [U- 13C] a-linoleate, [U- 13C] stearate, and [U- 13C] oleate were administered on d 1, 2, 4, and 6, respectively, and 13CO 2 production was measured. Protein and fat deposition were measured for 7 d. Fractional oxidation of fatty acids from the low-fat diet was lower than from the high-fat diets. Within diets, the saturated [U- 13C] stearate was oxidized less than the unsaturated [U- 13C] oleate and [U- 13C] linoleate. For the high unsaturated-fat diet, oxidation of [U- 13C] oleate was higher than that of [U- 13C] linoleate. In general, recovery of 13CO 2 from labeled fatty acids rose within 2 h after ingestion but peaked around the next meal. This peak was induced by an increased energy expenditure that was likely related to increased eating activity. In conclusion, oxidation of dietary fatty acids in growing pigs depends on the inclusion level and composition of dietary fat. Moreover, our data suggest that the most recently ingested fatty acids are preferred substrates for oxidation when the direct supply of dietary nutrients has decreased and ATP requirements increase. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.

Sterk A.,Wageningen University | Sterk A.,Agrifirm Innovation Center | Vlaeminck B.,Ghent University | van Vuuren A.M.,Wageningen University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of feeding different linseed sources on omasal fatty acid (FA) flows, and plasma and milk FA profiles in dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crushed linseed (CL), extruded whole linseed (EL), formaldehyde-treated linseed oil (FL) and linseed oil in combination with marine algae rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DL). Each period in the Latin square design lasted 21 d, with the first 16 d for adaptation. Omasal flow was estimated by the omasal sampling technique using Cr-EDTA, Yb-acetate, and acid detergent lignin as digesta flow markers. The average DM intake was 20.6 ± 2.5. kg/d, C18:3n-3 intake was 341 ± 51. g/d, and milk yield was 32.0 ± 4.6. kg/d. Milk fat yield was lower for the DL treatment (0.96. kg/d) compared with the other linseed treatments (CL, 1.36. kg/d; EL, 1.49. kg/d; FL, 1.54. kg/d). Omasal flow of C18:3n-3 was higher and C18:3n-3 biohydrogenation was lower for the EL treatment (33.8. g/d; 90.9%) compared with the CL (21.8. g/d; 94.0%), FL (15.5. g/d; 95.4%), and DL (4.6. g/d; 98.5%) treatments, whereas whole-tract digestibility of crude fat was lower for the EL treatment (64.8%) compared with the CL (71.3%), FL (78.5%), and DL (80.4%) treatments. The proportion of C18:3n-3 (g/100. g of FA) was higher for the FL treatment compared with the other treatments in plasma triacylglycerols (FL, 3.60; CL, 1.22; EL, 1.35; DL, 1.12) and milk fat (FL, 3.19; CL, 0.87; EL, 0.83; DL, 0.46). Omasal flow and proportion of C18:0 in plasma and milk fat were lower, whereas omasal flow and proportions of biohydrogenation intermediates in plasma and milk fat were higher for the DL treatment compared with the other linseed treatments. The results demonstrate that feeding EL did not result in a higher C18:3n-3 proportion in plasma and milk fat despite the higher omasal C18:3n-3 flow. This was related to the decreased total-tract digestibility of crude fat. Feeding FL resulted in a higher C18:3n-3 proportion in plasma and milk fat, although the omasal C18:3n-3 flow was similar or lower than for the CL and EL treatment, respectively. Feeding DL inhibited biohydrogenation of trans-11,. cis-15-C18:2 to C18:0, as indicated by the increased omasal flows and proportions of biohydrogenation intermediates in plasma and milk fat. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

Gerritsen R.,Wageningen University | Gerritsen R.,Agrifirm Innovation Center | Laurenssen B.F.A.,Wageningen University | Hazeleger W.,Wageningen University | And 4 more authors.
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2014

This paper presents follicle development and hormone profiles for sows with normal ovulation or cystic follicles during an intermittent-suckling (IS) regime that started at Day 14 of lactation. Sows were subjected to separation from their piglets during blocks of 6h or 12h. In total, 8 out of 52 sows developed cystic follicles; either full cystic ovaries (n≤6) or partial ovulation (n≤2). Increase in follicle size of these sows was similar to that of normal ovulating sows until pre-ovulatory size at Day 5 after the start of separation, but from then on became larger (P<0.05). LH surge was smaller or absent in sows that developed (partially) cystic ovaries (0.4±0.1 vs 3.6±0.3ngmL-1; P<0.01). Peak levels of oestradiol (E2) were similar but high E2 levels persisted in sows that developed (partly) cystic ovaries and duration of oestrus tended to be longer. The risk of developing (partly) cystic ovaries was higher when IS occurred in blocks of 6h versus 12h (33 vs 10%). In conclusion, the appearance of cystic ovaries at approximately Day 20 of ongoing lactation was related to an insufficient LH surge, as is also the case in non-lactating sows. © 2014 CSIRO.

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