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Jodhpur, India

Turska-Szewczuk A.,Maria Curie Sklodowska University | Guz L.,Agriculture University | Lindner B.,Research Center Borstel | Pietras H.,Maria Curie Sklodowska University | And 2 more authors.
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2011

The O-specific polysaccharide obtained by mild-acid degradation of lipopolysaccharide of Aeromonas bestiarum P1S was studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The sequence of the sugar residues was determined using 1H, 1H NOESY and 1H, 13C HMBC experiments. The O-specific polysaccharide was found to be a high-molecular-mass polysaccharide composed of tetrasaccharide repeating units of the structure →2)-β-D-Quip3NAcyl-(1→2)-β-D-Ribf-(1→4) -β-D-Galp-(1→3)-α-D-FucpNAc-(1→ Since small amounts of a terminal Quip3N residue were identified in methylation analysis, it was assumed that the elucidated structure also represented the biological repeating unit of the O-specific polysaccharide. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

File photo of a boy (L) guiding his herd of cows while heading to his village on the outskirts of Mithi, in the Sindh province March 12, 2014. "Had I stayed behind in my village, my family would have been starving," the 45-year-old said. "I thought better to move to the city and try my luck." An unusually warm and nearly dry Pakistan winter, with rainfall just a third of normal, has ruined crops and made life increasingly hard for the country’s small-scale farmers, experts say. Many farmers say they are struggling to adapt to increasingly unreliable weather, and in many cases have had to migrate to cities and towns to find jobs to help them survive. "I feel really unable to keep pace with weather patterns that are shifting so rapidly,” said Khan, who comes from Gujar Khan, a village about 55 kilometers (35 miles) from the capital. Late season heavy rain in mid-February and scattered snow in the mountains of northern Pakistan have raised some hopes of recovery, but have also led to new problems, including a late surge of weeds, farmers say. Now “we have to buy herbicides to fight the weeds,” bemoaned Karam Nawaz, a maize farmer in Sialkot district, in the lower northeastern parts of the country. Rab Nawaz Gujar, who grows mustard, pulses and barley on 78 hectares (192 acres) in the suburbs of Chakwal, in Pakistan’s northeast, predicted harvests of winter crops would be down in his area by half. Winter rains this year were two months late and rainfall has been nearly 65 percent below normal since January 1, said Ghulam Rasul, director general at the Pakistan Meteorological Department. He predicted that could cut winter harvests of some crops by at least 30 percent. About a quarter of Pakistan’s farmland is entirely dependent on rainfall to provide enough water, and in those areas farmers growing wheat, maize, mustard, pulses and vegetables may not be able to save much of their crop, said Sirat Asghar, a former Pakistan agriculture secretary. Pakistan’s key wheat crop, sown between October and December and harvested in March and April, is likely to see a decline from an expected 26 million tonnes to 23 million tonnes, agriculture officials said. "The worst impacts of dry and warm winter have come for wheat farmers,” Ibrahim Mughal, chairman of the Pakistan Agri Forum, a farmers’ non-governmental organization, told Thomson Reuters Foundation by phone from Lahore. Khuda Buksh, an agriculture scientist at Faisalabad Agriculture University, in central Pakistan, said the expected decline in harvests could trigger a spike in wheat prices, and some poor rural households would find it difficult to harvest or buy enough to meet their needs. "Sensing the precarious scenario of household food insecurity, many male family members have already headed toward nearby urban areas in search of jobs to tackle the emerging situation,” he said in a telephone interview. Weather scientists at the Pakistan Meteorological Department blame the extended dry winter conditions on a combination of global warming-induced climate change and a strong El Niño phenomenon. "The country has suffered so much because of the El Niño,” Rasul, of the Pakistan Meteorological Department, said in an interview. He predicted, however, that the phenomenon would largely have passed by April.

Choudhary B.R.,Agriculture University | Joshi P.,Agriculture University
Cytologia | Year: 2013

Interspecific hybridization is an important tool to elucidate intergenomic relationships, transfer characters across species, create genetic variability, and to develop synthetic amphidiploids. It has been widely used for improving Brassica. The present study was conducted to find out the crossability between Brassica juncea (AABB, 2n=36) and B. napus (AACC, 2n=38), analyze chromosome association in the F1 hybrids, and to estimate variability in F 2 progenies of the cross. The crossability between B. juncea and B. napus was higher when B. juncea was used as the female parent. The hybrids, in general, were vigorous and intermediate in morphological attributes. The meiotic studies of F, plants of cross B. juncea × B. napus (AABC, 2n=37) exhibited 10 bivalents in the majority of the pollen mother cells (PMCs) analyzed. A maximum of 14 bivalents in AABC hybrids and the presence of multivalent associations were attributed to the auto- and allosyndetic nature of pairing within and between the B and C genomes. In the F2 generation, a high percentage of plants resembling B. juncea type and transgressive segregation for many characters were found. © 2013 The Japan Mendel Society.

Rialch N.,Agriculture University | Sharma V.,Agriculture University | Sharma A.,Agriculture University | Sharma P.N.,Agriculture University
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2015

Capsicum (Capsicum annuum L var. grossum Sendt) commonly known as bell pepper or sweet pepper, is one of the most economical agricultural crop grown under both open and polyhouse conditions. The presence of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) from different districts of Himachal Pradesh was confirmed by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and RT-PCR using coat protein (CP) gene amplification. The first complete genome sequence of Indian isolate of PMMoV (HP-1) was elucidated and compared with other members of Virgaviridae family and PMMoV isolates. Sequence homology, multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis on the basis of nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed that PMMoV-HP1 isolate is more closely related to the PMMoV-J, the Japanese isolate. Based on CP gene amino acid sequence analysis, the PMMoV-HP1 isolate showed 100 per cent identity with P12 pathotypes (capable of breaking L2 gene mediated resistance in capsicum). This is the first report of the PMMoV complete genome organization intercepted in India. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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