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Tripathi L.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Tripathi J.N.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Tushemereirwe W.K.,National Agriculture Research Organization | Arinaitwe G.,National Agriculture Research Organization | Kiggundu A.,National Agriculture Research Organization
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Banana (Musa sp.) represents one of the most important world food crops after maize, rice, wheat and cassava. Many pests and diseases have significantly affected banana cultivation. Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is one of the most important diseases and currently considered as the biggest threat to banana production in the Great Lakes region of Africa including Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania and Burundi. The pathogen is highly contagious and its spread has endangered the livelihood of millions of farmers who rely on banana for food and income. The development of disease resistant bananas remains a high priority since farmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures and there is no host plant resistance among banana cultivars. The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), in partnership with the National Agriculture Research Organization (NARO), Uganda and the African Agriculture Technology Foundation (AATF), have developed hundreds of transgenic bananas constitutively expressing the Hypersensitive Response Assisting Protein (Hrap) or Plant Ferredoxin Like Protein (Pflp) gene originated from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). These transgenic lines have exhibited strong resistance to BXW in the laboratory and screen house tests. The best 65 resistant lines were planted in a confined field trial in October 2010 at NARL, Kawanda, Uganda after approval from the National Biosafety Committee. This is a significant step toward development of transgenic banana cultivars resistant to BXW, which will boost the available arsenal to fight this epidemic disease and save livelihoods in Africa. These transgenic lines are under evaluation for disease resistance and agronomic performance in field conditions. This technology may also provide effective control to other bacterial diseases such as moko or blood disease of banana occurring in other parts of the world.


Nzungize J.,University of Liège | Gepts P.,University of California at Davis | Buruchara R.,Pan Africa Bean Research Alliance | Buah S.,Pan Africa Bean Research Alliance | And 3 more authors.
African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2011

A series of 231 samples of bean plants affected by bean root rot were collected from different areas of Rwanda in order to characterize the causal agents. The collected samples were used to isolate 96 typical Pythium colonies which were classified into 16 Pythium species according to their respective molecular sequences of the ribosomal ITS fragments. Inoculation assays carried out on a set of 10 bean varieties revealed that all identified species were pathogenic on common bean. However, the bean varieties used in this investigation showed differences in their reaction to inoculation with the 16 Pythium species. In fact, the varieties CAL 96, RWR 617-97A, URUGEZI and RWR 1668 were susceptible to all the Pythium species while the varieties G 2331, AND 1062, MLB 40-89A, VUNINKINGI, AND 1064 and RWR 719 showed a high level of resistance to the all Pythium species used in our study. This high level of resistance to Pythium root rot disease found in diverse varieties of common bean grown in Rwanda constitutes a real advantage to be exploited as source of resistance in breeding programs aiming to increase resistance to the disease in the most popular bean varieties grown in Rwanda. © 2011 Academic Journals.


Ssali R.T.,Stellenbosch University | Ssali R.T.,National Agriculture Research Organization | Kiggundu A.,National Agricultural Biotechnology Center Kawanda | Lorenzen J.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation | And 4 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2013

Fusarium wilt of bananas (also known as Panama disease), caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense (Foc), is a serious problem to banana production worldwide. Genetic resistance offers the most promising means to the control of Fusarium wilt of bananas. In this study, the inheritance of resistance in Musa to Foc race 1 was investigated in three F2 populations derived from a cross between 'Sukali Ndizi' and 'TMB2X8075-7'. A total of 163 F2 progenies were evaluated for their response to Fusarium wilt in a screen house experiment. One hundred and fifteen progenies were susceptible and 48 were resistant. Mendelian segregation analysis for susceptible versus resistant progenies fits the segregation ratio of 3:1 (χ2 = 1.72, P = 0.81), suggesting that resistance to Fusarium wilt in Musa is conditioned by a single recessive gene. We propose panama disease 1 to be the name of the recessive gene conditioning resistance to Fusarium wilt in the diploid banana 'TMB2X8075-7'. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Nagasaka Y.,National Agriculture Research Organization | Tamaki K.,National Agriculture Research Organization | Nishiwaki K.,National Agriculture Research Organization | Saito M.,National Agriculture Research Organization | And 2 more authors.
2011 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, ICMA 2011 | Year: 2011

We are engaged in research about autonomous rice field operation. We have developed an automated tractor, a rice transplanter and a combine harvester. These automated agricultural machineries are guided by a global positioning system (GPS) and a direction sensor such as inertia measurement unit (IMU) using the controller area network (CAN) bus. Because each machine is used for a limited period of time in a year, we plan to share a main control computer and navigation sensors among automated machineries. We expect to deliver autonomous operation in paddy field at lower cost and to shorten the development period of each machine. The actuator control command and data communication protocols comply with the ISO 11783. In this paper, we report about project outline and explain about a rice transplanter as an example of automated agricultural machinery. © 2011 IEEE.

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