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Troubsko, Czech Republic

Elhassan M.I.,Agriculture Research Ltd | Bashab F.A.,Agriculture Research Ltd
Acta Horticulturae

With an annual production of about 330,000 tons and a date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) population of about 8 million, Sudan ranks number 8 in the list of top date producing countries of the world. However, Sudan has tremendous potential to rank much higher in this scale due to extensive stretches of land between latitude 12°N and the Tropic of Cancer, availability of irrigation water and a suitable climate for date production. Traditionally accustomed to live on date palms by merely pollinating and harvesting the palms, growers in Sudan have to cope with environmental changes and adjust to adopt proper management practices to earn a decent income from date palm cultivation. Sudan has been relying on growing indigenous varieties of dry and some semi-dry dates but the past few years have seen an influx of highly reputed date varieties imported from the tissue culture laboratories in UAE and Saudi Arabia. Research programs on date palms in Sudan are progressing with focus on local selection for promotion of promising indigenous germplasm, male selection studies, propagation, protection, storage and cultural practices. Some efforts to utilize date palm parts in light industry have started but large scale enterprises are yet to come. An overall improvement in harvest, postharvest handling and preparation of dates for marketing in Sudan are required. Sudan is yet free from the devastating Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Oliv, but termites (Microcerotermes diversus, Odontotermis classic) Sjosted, white scale (Parlatoria blanchardii).Targ., greater date moth (Arenipsis sabella hampsim), dust mites (Oligonychus afrasiaticus) McGregor, and (O. pratensis). Banks and some rodent pests are endemic. The store pests Raisin Moth (Ephestia sp.) and the Grain Saw Beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis) cause a lot of damage. The recently brought in Green Scale (Astrolecanium sp.) is a menace in Sudan probably due to lack of predators, vulnerability of local cultivars, climate and lack of growers' awareness to handle an exotic pest. Sudan is yet free from the destructive Bayyoud disease caused by the fungus (Fusarium oxysporu albedinis). Black scorch (Thielaviopsis paradoxa j.), Graphiola leaf spot (Graphiola phoenicis) and inflorescence rot (Mauginiella scaettae) are known to exist. The organisms Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus sp. and Helminthosporium sp. were isolated. Nematodes have also been isolated from infected date palms. But, several endemic diseases that are known by local names only exist, awaiting a thorough survey to diagnose and identify these diseases. Source

Seidenglanz M.,Agritec Plant Research Ltd | Poslusna J.,Agritec Plant Research Ltd | Rotrekl J.,Agriculture Research Ltd | Kolarik P.,Agriculture Research Ltd | And 5 more authors.
Plant Protection Science

Susceptibility of Meligethes sp. (mainly M. aeneus) from the Czech Republic was tested with lambda-cyhalothrin (111 samples in 2009, 125 in 2010, and 102 in 2011) through the use of IRAC method No. 011, Vers. 3 Resistant samples were the most frequent in all three years and their proportions increased from 33% to 62% between 2009 and 2011 The last samples classified as highly susceptible were recorded in 2010 The mean percentage mortalities for a common European field rate of 7.5 g a.i/ha were 82.2% in 2009, 78.92% in 2010, and 67.45% in 2011(according to Abbott’s formula). The values of LC50 ranged from 0.084 to 47.27 g a.i./ha in 2009, from 0.051 to 46.78 g a.i./ha in 2010, and from 0.238 to 19.92 g a.i./ha in 2011 Only in 17.65% of samples there were LC90 values below the European field rate in 2011. © 2014 Tsing Hua University. All rights reserved. Source

Seidenglanz M.,Plant Research Ltd | Poslusna J.,Plant Research Ltd | Rotrekl J.,Agriculture Research Ltd | Kolarik P.,Agriculture Research Ltd | And 4 more authors.
Plant Protection Science

Susceptibility of Meligethes aeneus populations from the Czech Republic and Slovakia was tested with lambda-cyhalothrin (93 populations in 2012, 82 populations in 2013) using IRAC method No. 011 Version 3. Resistant populations predominated in both years. The mean percentage mortalities for a common European field rate of 7.5 g a.i./ha were 60.95% in 2012 and 61.36% in 2013 (according to Abbott’s formula). The LC50values estimated for the tested populations exceeded the European field rate in many cases (22.09% of populations in 2012 and 17.14% in 2013). Only in 10.47% and 7.14% of populations the LC90values were below the European field rate (in 2012 and 2013, respectively). Slovak populations seemed to be somewhat less resistant compared to the Czech ones. © 2015, Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved. Source

Skladanka J.,Mendel University in Brno | Nedelnik J.,Agriculture Research Ltd | Adam V.,Mendel University in Brno | Dolezal P.,Mendel University in Brno | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

The issue of moulds and, thus, contamination with mycotoxins is very topical, particularly in connexion with forages from grass stands used at the end of the growing season. Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and aflatoxins (AFL) are among the most common mycotoxins. The aim of the paper was to determine concentrations of mycotoxins in selected grasses (Lolium perenne, Festulolium pabulare, Festulolium braunii) and their mixtures with Festuca rubra an/or Poa pratensis during the growing season as a marker of grass safety, which was assessed according to content of the aforementioned mycotoxins. During the growing season grass forage was contaminated with mycotoxins, most of all by DON and ZEA. The contents of AFL and FUM were zero or below the limit of quantification. Moreover, the level of the occurrence of mould was quantified as ergosterol content, which was higher at the specific date of cut. All results were statistically processed and significant changes were discussed. © 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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