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Ali A.,University of Peshawar | Ahmad S.,University of Peshawar | Ali H.,Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab | Ali H.,King Saud University
Entomologia Generalis | Year: 2014

Effect of temperature on immature stages of the predatory ladybird beetle Srerhorus punctum were studied at Agricultural University Peshawar. Pakistan during 2010. Immature stages development of Srerhorus punctum was studied under laboratory conditions at constant temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C. Result revealed that no development occurred at l0 and 40 °C. The total development times at different temperatures were 57.87, 32.12, 19.73, 14.24 and 10.70 days, respectively. A negative correlation was observed between development time and increasing temperature. The mortality rates of different stages were observed on different temperatures. The percent mortality was 73.31, 69.97, 23.32, 26.64 and 89.98 on 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C, respectively. Among all temperature only two temperatures (25 and 30 °C) were suitable for the successful rearing of Sterhorus punctum under laboratory condition for mass rearing. © 2014 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung. Stuttgart, Germany.

Hussain Z.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Marwat K.B.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Munsif F.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Samad A.,Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Field experiments on intercropping in maize crop were conducted during 2008 and 2009 at Agriculture Research Institute, Tarnab Peshawar, Pakistan. The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design comprising of 11 treatments, including weed free sole maize (WFMz), weedy check sole maize (WCMz), sole French beans (Fb), sole mung-beans (Mb), sole sunflower (Sf), intercropping maize-1-row+Frenchbean-1-row (MzFb 1:1), maize-1-row+Frenchbean-2-rows (MzFb 1:2), maize-1-row+mungbean-1-row(MzMb 1:1), maize-1-row+mungbean-2-rows (MzMb 1:2), maize-1-row+sunflower-1-row (MzSf 1:1), and maize-1-row+sunflower-2-rows (MzSf 1:2). The treatments significantly affected the weeds and crop parameters. Weed density (136 weeds m-2) and fresh biomass (2769 kg ha-1) were highest in the WCMz and Mb, respectively. The intercropping treatments resulted in 35-56% reduction in weed population. All the intercropping treatments showed 6.46 to 23.93% increase in the yield of maize over WCMz, except that in MzSf 1:2. Overall highest average grain yield of maize (3886 kg ha-1) was recorded in WFMz with 30.65% increase in yield over the WCMz (2695 kg). Among the intercropping treatments, maize yield was highest (3543 kg ha-1) in MzMb 1:1, where the yield was 23.93% higher than the WCMz; though it was at par with the MzFb 1:1 (3232 kg ha-1 with 16.62% yield increase over WCMz). The computed LER ranged between 1.023-1.294. Similarly, the cost benefit ratios (CBRs) ranged between 1.27 and 1.67. Among the intercropping treatments, highest CBR (1.64) was computed for MzSf 1:2, followed by MzMb 1:2 (1.58). Thus, intercropping reduced weed population, boosted maize performance, enhanced land utilization and increased farmers' monitory advantage.

Hussain Z.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Marwat K.B.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Munsif F.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Samad A.,Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab | Ali K.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

A field experiment on weed control in wheat was conducted at Agriculture Research Institute, (Tarnab) Peshawar during 2008-09. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design, replicated three times, and consisted of 14 treatments including six herbicide treatments; fenoxaprop-P-ethyl (P), pinoxadan (A), bromoxynil+MCPA (B), trisulfuron (L), clodinafop-propargyl (T) and fluroxypur+MCPA (S) that were used individually; and in seven different combinations i.e. T+B, T+S, P+B, P+S, B+A, L+A and L+T, and one treatment was kept as weedy check for comparison. All the herbicide treatments provided significant control of weeds causing significant reduction in density of target weed flora and also significantly improved the grain yield in comparison with the weedy check. Highest mortality of weeds (90.7%) and maximum grain yield of 3925 kg ha-1 (with 30.25% increase in grain yield over weedy check) were recorded where clodinafop-propargyl and bromoxynil+MCPA were applied together. The weed population and grain yield in weedy check were 161 weeds m-2 and 2744 kg ha-1, respectively. However, no crop injury was observed in any of the herbicide treatments. Among the herbicides used alone, bromoxynil+MCPA produced the highest grain yield (3827 kg ha-1) increased over check by 28.29%. In light of the results, it is concluded that bromoxynil+MCPA in alone, and its combination with clodinafop-propargyl are most effective and best option for achieving a desirable weed control and increase in grain yield of wheat in irrigated conditions of Peshawar.

Nabi G.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Rab A.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Sajid M.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Ullah F.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Influence of curing methods, storage conditions and duration on the post harvest quality of onion bulbs was studied at Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar, during 2006-07. Onion bulbs were cured with and without foliages and stored under different conditions e.g., cold store, cemented room and mud room for four months and evaluated for different quality attributes. Results indicated that the quality of onion bulbs was significantly affected by curing methods, storage conditions and duration. The maximum dry matter (17.5%) and TSS (11.5%) was recorded in bulbs cured with foliage as compared to 15.7% DM and 9.36% TSS with curing without foliage accordingly. The DM (21.2%) and TSS (14.9%) recorded in cold stored bulbs was followed by 15.65 and 13% DM with 9.44 and 6.65% TSS in mud and cemented room storage accordingly. Curing with foliage resulted in significantly lower weight loss, sprouting and rotting. The rate per month weight loss (1.95%), sprouting (2.4%) and rotting (0.4%) were the lowest in cold stored bulbs, while maximum 59.3, 59.5 and 31.3% accordingly were observed in bulbs stored cemented room. Weight loss, sprouting and rotting percentage increased with increasing storage duration. The lowest weight loss, sprouting and rotting (0 % each) obtained in cold store during the 1st month storage duration and highest percentage (13, 2.5 and 1.67 respectively) recorded with cemented room. After four months storage, the minimum percentage of weight loss (6%), sprouting (9.6%) and rotting (1.7%) was recorded in cold stored bulbs while the maximum weight loss (98%), sprouting (100%) and rotting (70%) was observed in bulbs stored cemented room.

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